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Sunday, March 11, 2012

BIG BANG THEORY AND HINDUISM CONCEPT OF CREATION


According to Hindu Philosophy, the universe (or multiverse) never came to be at some particular point, but always has been, always will be, but is perpetually in flux. Space and time are of cyclical nature. This universe is simply the current one, which is in flux and constantly changing, when it finally ceases to manifest, a new one will arise. An interesting parallel to these ideas can be found in the ekpyrotic model of the universe. This concept is also accepted by Buddhist Dharma.
This is similar to the Cyclical Universe Theory in physical cosmology. The Big Bang is described as the birth of the universe (Brahma), the life of the universe then follows (Vishnu), and the Big Crunchwould be described as the destruction of the universe (Shiva).
In a number of stories from the Puranas the continual creation and destruction of the universe is equated to the outwards and inwards breaths of the gigantic cosmic Maha Vishnu.
Hindu scriptures hold that Lord Vishnu, the protector and caretaker of all creation, sleeps in the middle of a vast ocean on the giant snake Sheshnaga. When the cycle begins, Lord Brahma is born out of the 'Anda', an allusion to the egg which is the origin of all life. This 'Anda' comes out of the navel of Lord Vishnu. The first sound of Lord Brahma is Om, the origin of all creation. At first the ultimate truth "Brahman" was their from whom came out Shiva without any birth or death. Vishnu is formed from the vaamanga of Shiva or the left body. Shiva is the extreme male power of the universe. He is the destroyer or annihilator of the universe. From him manifested the extreme female power of the universe Sati. Then the preserver of the universe Vishnu took three forms, Karnodakasayi visnu or Maha-Vishnu, Garbhodakasayivisnu and ksirodaksayi vishnu. Maha Visnu have several Garbhodakasayivishnus in the spiritual sky(The ocean of Karana). Each Garbhodakasayivishnu exhales and inhales and with each breath a Brahma is born who lives for 100 Brahma years and dies with the breath of Garbhodakasayi vishnu. Each Brahma creates a universe which comes to an end with partial annihilation after several Brahma years the annihilation of Garbhodakasayi vishnu takes place and at the last stage the dissolution of the whole karan sagar with Maha vishnu by Shiv with Tandav and this cycle again begins.This cycle of formation and annihilation is seen in Hinduism.
According to Western scholars, the religious tradition that we know as Hinduism is the product of at least 5,000 years of development, with roots stretching back to the Indus Valley civilisation, which prospered some 4 - 5,000 years ago. However, the origins of this religion are shrouded in mystery and according to Hindu scriptures may be millions of years old. There are many Hindu creation stories but the one given here helps to explain one of the major Hindu beliefs - reincarnation.
This is not the first world, nor is it the first universe. There have been and will be many more worlds and universes than there are drops of water in the holy river Ganges. The universes are made by Lord Brahma the Creator, maintained by Lord Vishnu the Preserver and destroyed by Lord Shiva. Since the universes must be destroyed before they can be recreated, Lord Shiva is called the Destroyer and Re-creator. These three gods are all forms of Supreme One and part of the Supreme One. The Supreme One is behind and beyond all. 
After each old universe is destroyed nothing is left but a vast ocean. Floating on this ocean, resting on the great snake Ananta, is Lord Vishnu. Some say that a lotus flower springs from his navel and from this comes Lord Brahma. And it is from Lord Brahma that all creation comes.
How dies Lord Brahma create? Some tell of how he grows lonely and splits himself in two to create male and female. Then he becomes one again and human beings are created. In the same way he creates all the other living things, from the great animals to the tiniest insects. Others say that everything comes from different parts of Lord Brahma's body. All the different animals and all the people come from his mouth, arms, thighs and feet. Everything comes from one - Lord Brahma, who is part of the Supreme One - so everything is part of the Supreme One. For this universe, this world and this Lord Brahma, like all those before and all those to come, will be destroyed by Lord Shiva. 
How long is the life of a universe? Its length is beyond imagination. One day to Lord Brahma is longer than four thousand million of the years that we know. Every night when Lord Brahma sleeps the world is destroyed. Every morning when he awakes it is created again. When the Lord Brahma of this universe has lived a lifetime of such days the universe is completely destroyed by Lord Shiva.
Everything disappears into the Supreme One. For an unimaginable period of time chaos and water alone exist. Then once again Lord Vishnu appears, floating on the vast ocean. From Lord Vishnu comes forth Lord Brahma of the new universe and the cycle continues for ever.


This belief in reincarnation, in the cycle of life, strongly influences the lifestyle of may Hindus. It can best be explained by the terms 'dharma' and 'karma'. Dharma may be translated as 'duty' and for Hindus, part of that duty is to respect and care for all living things. The belief that after death we are reborn in another body, not necessarily human, leads to a great respect for all life and results in many cases of vegetarianism. Karma is the result or product of what we do. If we do our duty, then we create good karma, since the next life we may have is directly related to the actions of our present life. To the Hindu, everything is part of the Supreme One, and thus every living thing is equally important in the great cycle of life.



There are many metaphorical parallels between modern cosmology and the Hindu theory of 'Shrishti'. The 'Anda' itself resembles the hypothetical energy point from which the Big Bang and hence the Universe emerged. The true intonation of Om is very long and drawn out, it is described as an all pervading sound. Its parallel is the cosmic background radiation, currently at a temperature level of 2.725 kelvins, which pervades the Universe.
Even string theory finds a place in the Hindu texts. The first thing that ever was and will be is 'Shabda' or sound. This energy is produced by vibrations in energy produced by the powers of the Trinity (Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva). Although at a very high level, this resembles the multidimensional vibrations of the infinitesimal strings which are said to be the basis of all creation.
The ultimate fate of the Universe is still an open question. The final answer depends upon the mass-energy content of the system as a whole. If it is below a certain limit, the Universe shall expand forever. If it exceeds a certain limit, it will contract into what has been conjectured as The Big Crunch.
The Hindu viewpoint of the continuous cycle of creation, destruction and rebirth is attuned to the theory of Big Bang - Expansion - Contraction - Big Crunch. This 'oscillation' is portrayed in Hindu texts, especially in the Bhagwad Gita as Shrishti followed by Vinaash. The period of Vinaash is one of extreme chaos where the very laws of Nature are described to fail. If the Big Crunch happens, the movement of galaxies towards each other will produce very strong gravitational fields which may make relativistic effects perceptible at a great magnitude. The physical phenomena which we are used to may change wildly or be non-existent.



பகவத்கீதை : 10.41 : மிக மேலான மகிமையுடனும், ஐசுவரியத்துடனும் சோர்வற்ற  முயற்சியுடனும் எவையெல்லாம் உள்ளனவோ அவை எல்லாம் எனது தேஜசின் ஒரு பகுதியால் உண்டானது என அறிந்துகொள்.

பகவத்கீதை : 10.42 : அர்ஜுனா ! இவ்வாறு பலவற்றை அறிந்துகொல்வதால் உனக்கு ஆவதென்ன ? எனது ஓர் அம்சத்தால் இந்த பிரபஞ்சம் முழுவதையுமே தாங்குகிறேன்.



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