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Friday, March 16, 2012

SRI VISHNU 1000 NAMES - 401 TO 600




401. Veerah — “The Valiant." One who, by His prowess, creates the fear in the minds of the Rakshasas.
402. Saktimataam-sreshthah — "The best among those who have power." All powers that are available, have been classified under three types: the power-of-Knowledge (Jnaana-Shakti), the power-of-Desire (lcchaa-Shakti) and the power-of-Action (Kriyaa-Shakti). All these powers are expression of the Self in the intellect, in the sub-conscious mind and in the physical body, respectively. Naturally the Self is the best among all other kinds of powers inasmuch as, all powers are expressions of this Great Self.
403. Dharmah — This term is used in Hinduism in thousands of different shades that, to the early student, the meaning of this term is lost in confusion. Dharma of a thing is that because of which the thing is, without which the thing is not." This term, Dharma, has, therefore, been translated as "the Law of Being"—the Dharma of the Sun is light; the Dharma of the Fire is heat, the Dharma of Sugar is sweetness. What then is the Dharma of the individual? The essential Dharma of the individual can only be the Self, because, without which the individual cannot exist, and the individual's expressions, physical, mental and intellectual, are all expressions of the Self through the equipment in Him. Thus, "Dharma" means the One Self in all individuals.
This essential Dharma in anything is that which supports the things and, therefore, the Self which is the essence everywhere, is considered as the very One which supports everything.
404. Dharma-vid-uttamah - "One who is the Highest among men of realisation." All those who know the Reality are knowers of this Self. Naturally, therefore, the Self is the best Knower among all knowers of the Self.
405. Vaikunthah — "One who prevents men from going astray into wrong paths (Vikunthah)."' In Mahabharata it is mentioned, "I united the Earth with water. Space with air, and Air with fire, hence, the name 'Vaikunthah" has come to Me.
406. Purushah - "One who dwells in all bodies (Puris )." In Brihadaranyaka Upanishad it is said, "because He as the first (Poorva) of all of them consumed (Aushad) by fire all sins, therefore. He is called Purushah.” In short, He is the One Self which thrills all living creatures everywhere at all times.
407. Praanah -"One who in the form of 'Praand exists in the body, propels all sense-organs to act in their appointed fields. It is Lord Vishnu that activates the body as the 5 praanas, is found in the Vishnupurana. As Praana, He causes movements.
408. Praanadah — This can mean "One who gives 'Praana' or as "One whb takes away ‘Praana because, the root 'da’ has both the meanings, 'to give and 'to break. Therefore, Vishnu is the Supreme who gives Praana to all creatures in the beginning of creation, and He alone is again the One who destroys all Praanas (movements) at the time of dissolution.
409. Pranavah - "That which is praised or adored by even the gods." There is a declaration of Sanatkumara, "Because it is being worshipped and adored by the gods, the Self is called as Pranavah This great Reality is indicated in the Vedas by the symbol 0m and, therefore, 'Omkaara' is called as Pranava. Thus the Supreme Self, 'Omkaara' is Vishnu.
410. Prithuh — "The expanded." He whose expanse is expressed as the world of infinite forms. In short, "He who is All-pervasive." Looking at the world, through Puranas, it suggests, "The One who is born as king Prithuh, the son of king Vena —for bringing prosperity to the country, is Lord Narayana."
411. Hiranyagarbhah - It is a term used in Vedanta for the "Creator." He is the expression of the creative urge of the Lord Narayana. "The golden-egg" means here that from which all the objective world had emerged out, indicating the Creator. So, the term means "He who is in Himself the very Creator." The term thereby suggests that the entire creative power of the Creator is but the expression of the Self, Narayana.
412. Satru-ghnah - "He destroyer of the enemies." The Lord is the annihilates all the enemies of the gods, meaning. He is the One who destroys all the negative tendencies in all serious seekers totally devoted to Him.
413. Vyaaptah - 'The Pervader." Theeffects cai never remain without the Cause; the Cause is concurrent an inherent in its effects. And thus, the world that has risen from the Infinite, should be pervaded by the Infinite. He who thu pervades everything is Narayana.
414. Vaayuh - who in the form of the atmospheric air, sustains all life everywhere." He is not the air, bi3 He is the life-giving power in the air.
415. Adhokshajah - Mahabharata says, "A no time My vitality flows downwards, and hence, I am caller ‘Adhokshajah’ The term can also mean, "One who is no available for the powers of the sense organs to perceive." Or it can also mean, "He who remains under both the atmosphere and the earth as the Supporter of the entire universe."
416. Rituh - "Seasons"--Here it means, the Lord of Time, who governs the seasons.
417. Sudarsanah — "One who is easy to be perceived if the seeker has sufficient devotion," or "He whose meeting is auspicious inasmuch as it removes the seeker's worldly worries."
418. Kaalah — "One who measures the merits and defects in each individual, and who doles out the appropriate results." Bhagavat Geeta says, "I am the Time of counting." Kaalah is also the name of Lord Death, and in this sense, it can mean "the Lord, who is Death or Annihilation personified to all His enemies."
419. Parameshthee – “One who is centred in His own infinite glory." Or, it can also mean "One who is readily available for experience in the Supreme cave of the heart."
420. Parigrahah — "The Receiver." He who receives from His devotees even insignificant things as a leaf or a flower, with all satisfaction. Some commentators stretch the suggestion of the word and find a meaning in this term as "One who has been accepted as the Sole Refuge by all devotees."
421. Ugrah -“The Terrible." The One who gives fear to those who are diabolically evil", or, as the Upanishad declares, "For fear of Him the fire burns; for fear of Him shines the sun; For fear of Him Indra, Vaayu and Death proceed with their respective functions,"—therefore He is the Terrible.
422. Samvatsarah - "The Year" which is the abode of all living creatures. Time is spread in which creatures exist and gather their experiences,
423. Dakshah - "The Smart." One who undertakes the creation, sustenance and destruction of the Whole Cosmos with ease and efficiency, diligence and promptitude.
424. Visraamah - "The resting place;" "the Quiet." That State wherein people who suffer in Samsar, can discover a perfect rest and quietude is the consciousness Supreme, Sree Narayana.
425. Visva-dakshinah - "The most skilful and efficient." All efficiency and skill that we find in the universe among the dynamic living creatures are all His expressions alone, and, therefore. He is the source of all skills.
426. Vistaarah - The extension. The Lord is named thus because in the time of Pralaya, in Him the entire universe of names and forms comes to reside with ample accommodation for all of them. The term Vistaarah can also mean "manifestation;" since the Lord manifests in Himself all the universe.
427. Sthaavarah-sthaanuh – “The firm and the motionless." The Firm (achanchala) indicates that He has no movements, because He is All-pervading. Sthaanuh (motionless) means that He is fixed like "the pillars that denote the frontiers of a country" (Sthaanuh). The terms here used are as one word because the Lord is both these at one and the same time. He is not only All-pervading, and, therefore, no movements in Him (Sthaavarah) but he is also without any locomotion (Sthaanuh). Both these terms indicate the All-pervasiveness of Lord Vishnu.
428. Pramaanam — The proof. He is the underlying principle of all intellectual arguments and for all scientific methodology, since He is the very Consciousness behind all discussions. Lord Narayana is the very authority behind all Dharmas and hence He becomes the essential Reality behind all (pramaana).
429. Beejamavyayam — "The Immutable Seed." Since the whole world has sprung from Him, He is the indestructible and changeless cause of the world. It can also mean "that without which the world can never be." Hence He is the un-decaying root of all things.
430. Arthah — One who is worshipped by all; invoked by everyone. Lord Narayana is desired by all as He is the Paramaatman who is of the nature of bliss. Even the sensuous man running after the sense-objects is seeking the Lord in as much as he is searching for bliss which is the nature of the Self.
431. Anarthtill - One to whom there is nothing that is yet to be fulfilled. This means one who has no desires, as He has fulfilled all His desires. So long as vaasanaas exist desires manifest. Where vaasanaas have ended there cannot be any desires and that state is the State of Self-realization.
432. Mahaakosah - One who has got around him great sheaths. The Self in us functions through the fives heaths such as the food-sheath, etc. Sri Narayana is one who, as the Lord of the universe (Jagadeesvamh), is conditioned by the macrocosmic sheaths of the universe, and therefore, the great lshvara is here indicated as Mahaakosah.
433. Mahaabhogah - One who is of the nature of enjoyment (bhogah). He being of the nature of bliss. Also He is the one from whom the greatest bliss (bhogah) can be gained by the seekers. In short, the term indicates Him as one who gives the greatest happiness to all those who are devoted to Him.
434. Mahaadhanah — One who is supremely rich with the wealth of bliss which he can give to His devotees. Vishnu is one from whom His devotees gain great wealth.
435. Anirvinnah - One who has no nirveda. This term nirveda means "the sense of disinterestedness that comes to the bosom of one who could not fulfil his passionate desires in life." The Lord is one who is griefless as He has no desires to fulfil. In His fullness and perfection. He has no more any desires to fulfil, and therefore, Sri Hari has no occasion to suffer from the sense of nirveda.
436. Sthavishthah — One who is supremely gross. The entire cosmos being His form. He Himself is the universe, and as such in His total manifestation. He is supremely gross. Geeta says (Chapter Xl-20) that the Lord spreads Himself covering the whole world and the atmosphere. The Upanishad (Mundaka 1-4) also says how "the sky forms His head, the sun and the moon are His eyes."
437. A-bhooh — One who has no birth, or the one, having realised whom, the seeker will no more have births. Some people dissolve the line Sthavishthah + Bhooh. In that case instead of A-bhooh they give the Lord the name, Bhooh meaning earth Just as the earth is the stage upon which the entire drama of life is being played, Sri Narayana is the substratum upon which the entire world of experiences is playing about.
438. Dharma-yoopah — Yoopah is the name given to the post to which the sacrificial animal is tied in a yaaga. The Lord is the very Post to which all Dharmas (righteousness) are tied. This means He is the very essence behind all righteousness.
439. Mahaa-makhah — The Great Sacrificer. Because the sacrifices dedicated to Him confer total liberation — (Nirvaana). Also in the Geeta we were told, "offer is Brahman, what is offered is Brahman, the fire is Brahman, the offerer is Brahman and the goal reached is also Brahman."
440. Nakshatranemih — The Nave of the stars. One who is the nave around which all the stars and the planets including the sun, moon and other planets always move around. For this brilliant glowing wheel of Light, Sri Narayana is the very Axle.
441. Nakshatree — One who is the Lord of the stars. Lord of the stars is the moon. Geeta says, "among the stars I am the moon,""
442. Kshamah - One who is supremely efficient in all undertakings. One who has extreme patience with all the stupidities of his devotees.
443. Kshaamah - One who ever remains without any scarcity—(kshaama). During the final deluge all things in the world dissolve and perish away but even then the Lord remains untouched by all distinction and hence He is called kshaamah.
444. Sameehanah — One whose desires are auspicious. The Lord is considered as "Well-desiring""" in as much as he desires the well-being of all His creatures at all times. He knows how to control and regulate His power of desiring (lcchaa-shakti) and thus He is extremely efficient in His creative activity.
445. Yajnah — One who is of the nature of yajna. All sacrifices are His own forms. He exists as sacrifice in order to satisfy men and gods. Sruti says that all yajnas are of the nature of Vishnu (Yajno Vai Vishnuh).
446. ljyah - One who is fit to be invoked through yajnas. LordNarayana is the only one who is being invoked in all yajnas, even when the devotee particularly invokes any other deity. He, being the Infinite, all gods are expressions of His own glory and therefore, irrespective of the deity invoked all yajnaas are worship of Vishnu. In Harivarnsa we read a declaration which openly reveals this truth: "They who worship through holy sacrifices, the devas or the pitris, they worship indeed the Vishnu, the Self, through the Self."
447. Mahejyah — One who is to be most worshipped. One who most certainly is to be invoked in every ritual because all other devataas invoked during the yajnas can each fulfil the seeker's desires; but to invoke Sri Narayana is to invoke the only Power that can supply complete liberation for the devotee. Therefore, He is the object of great sacrifice.
448. Kratuh — It is a kind of yaaga wherein there is a pillar to which the sacrificial animal is tied. Since all sacrifices are offered to Him—the Lord, even Kratuh, a sacrifice with violence inherent in it. is also Vishnu.
449. Satram -The Lord who protects the good (Sat) In continuation with the previous Kratuh, when we read this it can also be considered as indicating a particular kind of yajna described as Satram in our Vedic literature.
450. Sataamgatih -One who is the refuge (for the good people). One who is worshipped and invoked by those who wish to liberate themselves from all limitations in life. Gatih in Sanskrit means both the pathandthe goal. Thus, through surrendering to the Narayana alone does one reach Sri Narayana.
451. Sarvadarshee — "All-knower." As He is the pure Consciousness in all living creatures, all knowledge in all beings is illumined by Him. Just as the sun is "the eye of the universe," so the Consciousness is the Illuminator of everything.
452. Vimuktaatmaa — “The ever-liberated Self." The Supreme, though He expresses Himself through the equipments. He is never conditioned by the matter envelopments through which He apparently expresses Himself. Just as the waves rise, exist and dissolve in the ocean, the equipments of experiences rise, play and dissolve themselves in Him.
He is ever-liberated, never-shackled by gross matter. This great principle of Paraatmaa is Sri Narayana.—Sruti says.
453. Sarvajnah - "Omniscient." He is the Principle of Consciousness and, therefore. He is the Illuminator of all thoughts, all intentions, motives, emotions and all sense perceptions in an individual. The meaning is the same as in Sarvadarsee.
454. Jnaanamuttamam - "The Supreme Knowledge of all other knowledges." The Self is the Supreme Knowledge, for, without the Consciousness, no knowledge is possible. Taittireeyopanishad indicates the Self as: "Satyam Jnaanam, Anantam Brahma.”
455. Suvratah — "The one who is ever performing the pure vow." It is a sacred vow of the Lord that He has to give shelter and protection to all those who totally surrender themselves into him—says Sri Ramachandraji: "To give shelter to all living creatures—this is my vow." This term can also refer to Him who had done tapas for a long number of years on the mount of Nara-Narayana in Badrinath.
456. Surnukhah - One who has an enchanting face. Truth is beauty and Beauty truth. In all conditions the Lord is ever cheerful and brings to His face the dignified beauty of calm repose. When the devotees come and surrender at His sacred feet Narayana is the one of Infinite mercy who beams with joy at the devotion of the surrender.
457. Sookshmah - One who is subtler than the subtlest. In Vedanta terminology subtlety indicates Pervasiveness. Therefore, the term means All-Pervasive. The Upanishad says the Lord is All-Pervading, subtler than the subtlest (Sarvagatam susookshmarn).
458. Sughoshah — "Of auspicious sound." This is the name of the conch that Krishna blew in the opening of the Mahabharata war. The sound of Vishnu is the essence of all Vedas as all the four Vedas have come from Him, the Supreme. Hence the term "of auspicious sound."
459. Sukhadah - "One who confers happiness." It can also mean in Sanskrit one who is the destroyer of joy (Da—to destroy). Here, of course, it means that One who gives joy to His devotees and takes away joy from those who are undivine.
460. Suhrit — "The friend of all living creatures." A true friend is one who gives all that he possesses without expecting any return.
461. Manoharah — One who is the looter of the mind; or charming. Not only is the Lord Beauty Incarnate, but He compels the attention of the devotee to come away from all other sense objects to dwell upon His enchanting form. Thus Vishnu is one who generates an irresistible joy in the mind of His devotees and compels them to spend their time in constant worship.
462. Jita-krodhah - One who has conquered anger. By the one term here, anger, we should consider all the six inner enemies Kaama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha, Mada and Moatsarya. These six constitute the types of thoughts in man; the six categories into which all his mental activities fall. One who has conquered all these means one who is beyond the mind—the Self.
463. Veerabaahuh — One having mighty, valiant arms. From time to time He has to incarnate in order to put down the wicked and thereby protect the good.
464. Vidaaranah — One who splits asunder; destroys. In the man-lion form, Narasimha, Lord Vishnu appears to tear open and kill Hiranyakasipu. Again, inorder to destroy Hiranyaaksha and to lift the earth from the ocean, Sri Narayana had to take the form of the great boar (Varaaha). Accordingly in the Sanskrit vocabulary, bhoo-daarah is a synonym for boar ( Varaaha). Dara means to split or to tear open. Thus the meaning of the divine Boar can be squeezed out from the term Vidaaranah used here.
465. Svaapanah - One who puts people to sleep; stupefying. Lord Vishnu as lsvara has for Himself the total Vaasanaa (Maayaa) as an equipment for His self-expression as Eesvara (Narayana). He, through His Maayaa, veils each individual and renders them ignorant of their own divine nature. This "veiling-power" (Aavarana Sakti) creates many agitations (Yikshepa), due to which individuals rush out for sense-gratification. Since lsvara, thus, with His Maayaa-power deludes everybody, He gathers to Himself this epithet Svaapanah, meaning "the mighty stupefying force."
466. Svavasah - The One who has everything under His own personal control; the totally independent. Since He is the Supreme Consciousness, all living creatures and phenomenal powers are functioning by His grace, drawing their capacities to exist and act from Him only. If He withdraws His patronage everything in this Universe must stop functioning immediately. He is supremely independent inasmuch as, though the world-of-objects needs Him, He is entirely self-sufficient and needs no world for His Existence. Thus He is totally free. The waves need the ocean, but the ocean is totally independent of the waves' existence.
467. Vyaapee - All-pervading. Pervasiveness in philosophy indicates subtlety. Thus All-pervading means that which is "subtler than the subtlest." This concept is again sustained by the physical observations in the world. The cause always pervades all the effects; the gold pervades all ornaments. The entire universe is an effect and He being the Cause, He pervades all and everything at all times. Thus the All-pervading, in its suggestion, indicates that He is the Ultimate-cause and Himself in His pervasiveness is ever-present everywhere and in everything, presiding over all behaviours, actions and work, everywhere in the universe.
468. Naikaatmaa — Many-souled. Lord, the Infinite, though ever the one, expresses Himself as the many, while manifesting Himself, in the form of the universe. It is He, the One Great Consciousness, that expresses Himself as the creator, sustainer and destroyer—in order to maintain the play of the eternal dance, among the phenomenal things and deeds. He who becomes the Trinity is the great Vishnu Tattva.
469. Naika-karma-krit — The One who does many actions, as He is the One Lord of all evolution, preservation, and involution of the universe. Where He is not presiding over, no activity can ever take place.
470. Vatsarah - The Abode of Lord. Not only Lord is living in each one of us as our inner-Soul (Antaryaamee) but He is at once, the All-pervading Essence in which, the entire universe exists, and as such. He alone is the Abode in which we live, breathe and act. Thus, as the Abode of the creatures, He is the endless 'time and the infinite 'space' at once. For, in time-space field alone do things exist. The term "Vatsa," in Sanskrit, also means "calf." The word under discussion, therefore, can also mean "one who gives away calves." This has reference to Krishna who returned to the Gopas all the calves, when they were taken away by the enemy.
471. Vatsalah — The Supremely affectionate. One who loves His devotees extremely. Narayana is one who has got more affection towards His devotees than all the paternal and maternal love in the world put together. Supreme Love is the meaning of the word 'Vatsalah;' Lord Narayana is Love Incarnate.
472. Vatsee - The Father. One who has infinite number of children; Lord considers the entire living kingdom as His own children; and nurses and nourishes them. It can also be interpreted as one who trains and protects the calves in the herd.
473. Ratnagarbhah - The Jewel-wombed. Like the ocean. One who has rich wealth concealed in Himself.
On the whole, the term Ratna-garbhah only means that the Lord is quick in His bestowing all the desired objects on His devotees.
474. Dhanesvarah — The Lord of wealth. Here the term "Wealth" means all the good things in the universe— all objects of happiness. He is described in the Puranas as the Lord of the Goddess Lakshmi (Lakshmipati) and as such He is ever the Master-of-all-wealth. The greatest of wealth is, of course, the liberation, and Lord Narayana is the Ishvara of this great wealth. He blesses the true devotees with the experience of complete liberation from the entanglements and sorrows of the vestures of matter around us.
475.
Dharmagup — One who protects the Dharma. In the Bhagavad-Gita the Lord says: "In every cycle I shall manifest for re-establishing Dharma."
476. Dharma-krit - One who acts Dharma. Though He, as the Absolute Consciousness that illuminates everything, is beyond all Dharma and Adharma, Sri Narayana exemplifies what is the righteousness by His own conduct. He is, therefore, called as Dharma-Pravartaka. In the various incarnations, the Lord has exemplified how the generatior should live under the ever-changing kaleidoscopic pattern of circumstances that play around us at all times.
477. Dharmee - The Supporter of 'Dharma; meaning the very Seat of all Dharma. Just as the waves exist in the ocean; just as the cotton supports the cloth; just as all the ornaments exist in gold—so Sri Narayana, the Infinite Truth is the very essence and support of the entire universe. Narayana is the Throne at which all righteousness take their refuge. Without direct reference to Him and His Glory, righteousness has no meaning; just as law books of a country are empty pages when the Government falls.
478. Sat — The Existence in all things and beings is the same ever, and it is All-pervading. The sun exists; the space between the sun and the earth exists the ocean and the creatures therein exist; the physiological organs and their functions, mind and its activities, the intellect and its agitations —all exist. This Ever-present Principle of Existence is Sri Narayana. That which remains the same without any change in and through all changes, unaffected ever, same in the past, present and the future is called in Vedanta as 'Satya." One who has all these natures is called Sat-Purusha. In the Upanishads, the Supreme Brahman is indicated as 'Satya'—"This, 0 Child, indeed was Sat." In the Bhagavad-Gita while describing the Changeless Factor behind the eternally changing matter, Bhagavan says: 'That which is the All-pervading in this world, that alone is indestructible and no one can destroy it."
479. A-Sat - The Conditioned; Limited; the One who appears at this moment as the limited, conditioned, and therefore confined only to the world of plurality. That which actually is not, but apparently seems to be there, is called a delusion and this is indicated by the word A-Sat." In the Vedantic terminology, higher-Self (Param) is ever Immutable and Eternal, while the lower-Self (A-param) constituted of all the universe of manifested things and beings, is mutable and ephemeral. Sri Narayana Himself is, in His Apara nature, expressing as the world of the many that we today recognise around us. Bhagavan Sri Krishna confesses to Arjuna in the Bhagavad-Gita: "Arjuna, I am at once immortality and mortality, lam both existence and non-existence."
480. Ksharam - The Perishing. One who is the very Immutable Self in all things, that appears to suffer from constant mutation: The changeless-core in the midst of all the changes. All the changeable and variable things and beings of the Universe play in Him who is the only Substratum and, therefore, the Immutable Eternal Reality is called here as the Mutable; the changing and the dying waves are all ever nothing but the changeless ocean indeed.
481. A-ksharam - Imperishable. In order to recognize the change, there must be a changeless entity knowing it. If one ornament is to become another, there must be indeed the changeless consistent gold permanently supporting it all the time. In the same way, there must be a Changeless Factor which must be the essential core, that holds together the pattern of the constant changes, which together constitute the play of the universe. This Changeless Factor is called Narayana. Krishna says in Bhagavad-Gita: "all creatures together constitute the Kshara-purusha and the Changeless in all creatures is the A-kshara-purusha."
482. Avijnaataa - The Non-knower. Here we must carefully understand the term 'knower." The "knower" of the emotions and thoughts is the Self, imprisoned in the body, mind and the intellect, and, therefore, functioning as the perceiver, feeler, thinker—called in the Vedanta Sastra as the "Jeeva," This individualised personality is the 'doer and the 'enjoyer', in the calamitous world of activities. Sri Narayana is the Pure-Self, who has not been contaminated by the matter vestures and their agitated-nature, and the consequent sorrows. Therefore, 'Vishnu, the Pure-Self, is indicated here as NonKnower (A-vijnaataa), meaning the "Jeeva."
483. Sahasra-amsuh — The thousand-rayed. As the Pure Consciousness, He is effulgent, and in the Upanishads we read that even the sun, moon and stars gain their effulgence from Him alone. In fact the Upanishads conclude that all living creatures are resplendent after His effulgence alone. Or, we can say that it means Sri Narayana, in the form of the Sun, illumines and nourishes the world of living creatures; because the name of the Sun in Sanskrit is “Sahasraamsuh." In praising the Lord Sun it is usual to sing of him as 'Sooryanaaraay ana.'
484. Vidhaataa — All-supporter. As the final substratum for everything, the Lord supports the entire universe of living creatures, and nobody supports Him, He alone is His own support. The Lord is at once the material, instrumental and the efficient causes for the universe of forms. 485. Krita-Jakshanah - One who is famous because of six qualities, such as glory, righteousness, fame, wealth, knowledge and detachment. Again following the Puranic literature, Sri Narayana is the one who made on His own bosom the great mark of the feet of Maharshi Bhrigu. In fact from the standpoint of pure Vedanta, the term indicates the Ever-existing Pure Consciousness which is the very goal (Lakshana) to be ultimately achieved for liberation. Lakshana also means the scriptural textbooks and, therefore, the term also can mean He who is the author (Krita) of the Scriptures (Lakshana).
486. Gabhastinemih — The Centre of the Supreme planetary system. The Sanskrit term "Gabhasti” means 'rays', and the term 'n-mih' means the 'spokes.' Therefore, the term indicates "One who is the hub of the wheel-of-light in which the spokes are His own rays of brilliancy." Astronomically, we can consider this as the sun, the centre of the planetary system. Subjectively, He is the Atman, the Self—the Effulgent Consciousness—beaming out Himself to the whirls of matter (the five koshas).
487. Sattvasthah — Abiding in Sattva. Maayaa is constituted of the three gunas: unactivity (sattva), activity (rajas) and inactivity (tamas). When the Maayaa is predominantly constituted of Sattva, it becomes the vehicle for the Supreme Brahman to express as God, Sri Narayana. The Lord is essentially constituted of the "Sattva Guna" and, therefore, He is pure truthfulness in nature (Suddha Satya Svaroopa). It can also mean He who remains {Stha) in all beings (Sattva).
488. Simhah — The Lion. Due to His great exploits in fighting the negative forces during His various incarnations, He is indicated as the Lion among beings in the universe. Also in Sanskrit "any part of a name can indicate the full name." Thus Bheema means 'Bheema Send or 'Bhaarnaa" means "Satya-Bhaarnaa. Similarly, 'Simha' here might mean a part of the Lord's name as 'Narasimha'; Narayana had taken the form of the Man-Lion in order to end the tyranny of Hiranyakasipu, and bless his God-devoted son Prahlaada.
489. Bhoota-Mahesvarah - The Great Lord of Beings. One who is the Lord who orders, commands, regulates and presides over all activities of all living creatures, and hence is ever the Ruler of All creatures.
490. Aadidevah — The first Deity. Or it can also mean one who is First (Aadi) and one who is resplendent (Deva); further we can also take it to mean that He is the First Deva, meaning. He is the God of all gods. The term “Aadi" also means "one who eats;" the term 'Deva' can mean one who evolves': thus the term can mean "one who evolves in eating up," by consuming the names and forms. This implies that to the extent one withdraws himself from his false occupations with the perceived names and forms, he moves deeper and deeper into the experiences of the divine Lord in himself; with this idea in mind. Lord is described by this term, "One who evolves in consuming the names and fonns."
491. Mahaadevfih - The Great Deity. He is the Source of all Consciousness, and from Him have risen all further deities and beings, therefore, it is right to consider Him as the Supreme Lord.
492. Devesah - The Lord of all Devas. He is the very Consciousness in the gods themselves; therefore, in His unquestionable prominence. He is addressed here as "God of ail gods."
493.
Deva-bhrid-guruh - "One who is the king of gods"—Indra—(Deva Bhrit) and one who is the teacher (Guruh). In short. He is the protector and advisor of the very Indra, who is the king of gods. 494. Uttarah - One who helps to lift us from (Uttarah) the ocean of Samsar. lt.also conveys the most excellent meaning of "One who is greater and nobler than all other deities." Rigveda declares:. "He is the most excellent of all."
495. Gopatih — The shepherd—As ogewho played the part of a cow-herd in His Krishna-incarnation. The term 'Go’ in Sanskrit has got four meanings: the cattle, the earth, the speech and the vedas. In all these meanings He is the Lord (Pati): Lord of the cattle; Lord of Earth; Lord of speech; the Lord about whom all the Vedas speak of as the very Goal.
496. Goptaa - The protector. He is the Protector of all living creatures in as much as, if He were not there, the creatures could not exist. He is the very Existence in the living Kingdom.
497. Jnaanagamyah - The One who is to be attained only through the subtle perception of Jnaana. He is not attained either by actions, or by progeny or by wealih. Only through a pure 'knowledge' alone He is experienced. Here the word knowledge does not mean the ordinary knowledge-of-things. The experience of Truth is gained only on transcending the intellect. Thus crossing the barriers of non-apprehension (Avidyaa) themeditator comes to apprehend the Reality; this subjective first-hand apprehension is called True Knowledge (Jnaa~a) : by this one process alone can one attain the Infinite; hence this term.
498. Puraatanah — He who was even befoe Time. That from which even the concept-of-Time itself rose up is the Infinite Truth and, therefore. Truth cannot be measured in terms of Time. Therefore, He is called the Ancient, for. He transcends Time.
499. Sareera-bkoota-bhrit — One who nurses and nourishes the very element from which the bodies are constituted. The Lord is the controller of the very five elements.
500. Bhoktaa - The Enjoyer or the Protector. The term "Bhokraa" can be dissolved in two ways. In (a) it would mean the "Protector' and in (b) it would mean as the 'Enjoyer. According to Vedanta, Lord in His transcendental glory, as the Atman, is neither the 'Doer' nor the 'Enjoyer' and yet, here, the Lord is taken as the 'Enjoyer' only in the sense that the experiencer 'ego,' the Jeeva, is also nothing other than the Supreme in Its final Essence.


501. Kapeendrah - One who is the Lord of the Monkeys—Sri Ramachandraji. 'Kapih' also can mean the Boar-incarnation (Varaaha)
502. Bhoori-dakshinah — He who gives away large gifts (Dakshinaa), as presents distributed at the end of the Sacrifices. When the body, mind and the intellect of man make sacrifices, man does Karmas. Lord Narayana is the One who gives the results for all actions: (Karma Phala Daataa); hence this term to indicate the Lord.
503. Somapah - One who drinks the Soma-juice in the Yajnas, in the form of the deity that has been invoked by the householder. In short, Narayana is the Lord that receives all the offerings, in all rituals, which we may offer, because He is the One invoked, who plays as the various hierarchy of deities.
504. Arnritapah - One who drinks the nectar. As the Infinite Truth He at all times enjoys the blissful immortality (Arnritatvarn). Also, it may have the echo of the puranic story of the churning of the Ocean-of-milk (Ksheera" abdhi) until they got the Nectar, which was confiscated by the Asuras, and when they ran away, it was Sri Narayana, who, in the form of the irresistible Mohinee, a beautiful enchanting damsel, recovered the Nectar from them and distributed it to the gods. He had partaken the Nectar along with the gods.
505. Somah - One who in the form of the moonlight (Soma) nourishes all the plant-kingdom witn their respective essential sap. It is very well known in the Hindu literature that the moonlight is that which enriches the food value in the fruits and grains. In the Geeta, Bhagavan says: "I in the form of the moon-light, enrich all the plant-kingdom," The term can also mean Siva, in which case it would mean as "One who is ever consorted by Urnaa."
506. Purujit - One who has won over numerous enemies. The word Puru means 'many'.
507. Puru-sattamah - One who is Greater among the great. Here the word Puru means 'great'. In some readings we find instead of this term "Puru-sattamah" the term "Purushottamah" is used, in which case the meaning is the Omnipresent (Purusha) and the Best (Uttamah)-the Absolute Reality.
508. Vinayah - In direct meaning, of course, it means "He who shows the supreme humility." But the term also means "One who humiliates those who are unrighteous." The Lord is one who leads well (Vi-Naya) the seekers steadily through the path of truth and righteousness.
509. Jayah - The Victorious. One who has conquered all the matter. It connotes that in order to experience the 'Self we have to conquer all the lower matter-realms and their by-products. Realizing the Self, the seeker himself becomes the Self. At that time he has conquered all.
510. Satya-sandhah - Of truthful resolution (Sankalpa). The Lord is One, who in His. perfection, has so completely integrated, that His resolve. His thoughts, feelings, words and actions are always truthful. There would be no compromise in them, and as such, every resolve of His becomes fruitful: '' ea~ensss might fall down, the earth might tumble down, the Himalayas might be crushed, the ocean might become dry, but My word uttered shall never be in vain." (Purana).
511. Daasaaf-hah - It is a name of Lord Krishna since He was born in the Dasaarha race ( Yaadava-kula). It can also mean "One who is fully competent to receive all devoted offerings made in the ritualistic sacrifices." 512.Saatvataam-patih - The Lord of the Saatvat-people. Those who are followers of the Tantra named Saatvata-scriptures essentially Saattvic in nature- are called Saatvatas, and their Lord is Sri Narayana. The essential path of the Saatvatas is single-pointed meditation upon the form of Lord Vishnu with utter devotion.
513. Jeevah - One who remains as the limited ego (jeevak) who in its sense of separateness comes to experience the endless joys and sorrows in the fields of life. One who functions as the Experiencer-of-the-Field (Kshetrajna), as described in the Bhaghavad-Gita.
514. Vinayitaa-saakshee - The Witness of modesty. He is the one Consciousness that illumines the very sense of humility in His devotee's heart. It can also mean that as Pure Consciousness, He is one without a second, and, therefore, from His state of Universal Oneness He sees nothing other than Himself everywhere. In this Absolute Nature He does not see the world of finitude constituted of the ego and its deluded devilry.
515. Mukundah - One who gives liberation. To those who are trying to free themselves from the imperfections of the matter-conditionings, and who are struggling hard to end their delusions, Sri Narayana, being the very Goal, ultimately gives complete liberation for all devotees who reach Him in the true spirit of total surrender.
516. Amitai ikramah - Of immeasurable Prowess or One whose step (Vikramah) is immeasurable (Amita). The Lord in his Vamana-incarnation measured the three worlds by His three steps, and, therefore, He gained the title of Trivikramaha\ Since the Lord's steps are so vast, they are, indeed, immeasurable-"Amita"-Vikramah.
517. Ambho-nidhih - The direct meaning of the word is "ocean" and the Lord Himself in the Bhagavat Geeta has declared, "Of the lakes I am the ocean". According to the Taittireeya Braahmana: "These are the four Ambhas: viz. the Devas, Men, Manes and the Asuras." Therefore, the term Ambhonidhih should mean "One who is the substratum for all the four types of creatures.
518. Ananta-atmaa -The Infinite Self. He is undefeated by time, space, or substance, and, therefore, in His own unconditioned nature He is the Infinite One Self. Or it can also mean One who manifests Himself as the endless varieties of entities constituting the universe. Ananta also means "end-less" and, therefore, the Endless Self, which means theParamaatman, the Supreme Self.
519. Mahodadhisayah - One who rests on the great ocean. According to the description of Vishnupurana. Lord Narayana reclines upon the Aadisesha in the Milky-ocean of Vaikuntha. It can also mean, "One who remains on a fig-leaf, upon the waters of the deluge, when all names and forms have been dissolved into the unmanifest.
520. Antakah - The Death. As Time, He is the One who brings about constant changes in the world, without which no evolution or creative development is ever possible.
521. Ajah - Unborn. As the changeless and deathless Reality, He has neither birth nor any decay. Unborn' in philosophy means undying; therefore, Eternal, Changeless. "Born to Lord Vishnu" is yet another meaning, and according to this interpretation, the term can suggest "Pradyurnna," son of Vishnu, who is considered to be in our Purana an Incarnation of the Lord of Love.
522.
- '0ne who deserves the highest worship." Arhaa means 'pooja': 'worship'.
523. Svaabhaavyah - Ever-rooted in the nature of His own Self. One who is the Uncaused Cause, the God.
524. Jitaamitrah -One who has conquered all his enemies both within and without. Within, He has conquered all enemies such as desires, hope, etc., and externally, has conquered enemies like Ravana, Hiranyakasipu and others.
525. Pramodanah -'Ever-blissful'. One who is constantly enjoying His own Eternal, Blissful nature. The term indicates 'Vishnu' because Sri Narayana is the One that causes bliss in the heart of those who meditate upon Him.
526. Aanandah - A mass of Pure Bliss. Bliss is His pure nature. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad says: "Of this happiness, all other beings enjoy only a part."
527. Nandanah - "One who makes others blissful." Since the Lord is the very source of the happiness of the devotees who reach the divine plane of Pure Consciousness, it is in Him they get themselves intoxicated with the endless drunkenness of this unceasing Bliss.
528. Nandah - One who is freed from all limited worldly pleasures. Worldly pleasures come through contact with the objects of the sense-organs. The term means One who has no contact with the world of senses, as He dwells in trans cendence of all the equipments of pleasure-the body, min( and intellect. Chandogya Upanishad says, "That which is immensity is felicity; there is no felicity in littleness."
529. Satyadharmaa - One who has in Him self all the true Dharmas. Kindness, non-injury~ charity etc are considered as the noble Dharmas. Sri Narayana is One ii whom we find all these Dharmas to the maximum. In short He is the embodiment of Yoga (Yogeshvara). It also means the One who is rich in the experience of the Supreme Self; for, the Upanishad says: "This alone is the Supreme Dharma which i to experience the Self through yoga".
530. Trivikramah - 'One who has taken the three steps". One who has, in three steps, conquered the three worlds in his Vamana-incarnation. The spiritual seeker ha only to take three steps to reach the Centre of the Self in him self. Once he has stepped across the fields-of-experiences ii the waking, dream and deep-sleep conditions, he has reached the Infinite Consciousness, the Atman. The very term in Sanskrit means 'the three-worlds.' "The greatest men of reflection have declared the three fields-of-experiences (Loka) by the simple term 'Tri,"-(Harivarnsa).
531. Maharshih Kapilaachaaryah - One who has manifested as the teacher Kapila, the great sage. "Rishi", the sage, is one who has mastered a portion of the Veda, and one who has mastered the entire Vedas is called "Maharshi in the Hindu tradition. The preceptor Kapila, who is a great master of the entire Vedic literature, is the propounder of the Saankhya philosophy. The glory of Kapilaachaarya is endorsed by Lord' Krishna Himself in the Geeta when He declares, "Of the perfected-ones, I am sage Kapila."
532. Kritajnalt - The created and the knower of the creation. Kritam means "the universe that has been created." Jna means "the knower of all the objects." The Supreme Selfish the material cause for the "knower" ego (Jim), and the effects constitute the world of things and beings (Kritam). He who is the very substratum for both cause and effect is the Absolute Self, the Lord. He is unconditioned by the outer matter vestures such as body etc. and thus Lord Sri Narayana is the Absolute Reality. Nowadays, this word (Kritajna) has come to mean "gratitude" or "thanks-giving". it is a cheap application of this deep meaning. To express to my benefactor that "I have knmvn (Jna) what he had done (Kritam) to help me" is thanksgiving, and hence, this usage is today very popular in our vernacular.
533. Medineepatih - The Lord of the Earth, Sri Narayana. The Preserver Vishnu as the husband of the inert matter. Earth, is a concept at once immensely beautiful and deep, philosophic and poetic.
534. Tripadah - "The One who has taken the three steps." This indicates, the Vamana-incarnation, and how He measured, in just three steps, the entire universe. The jeeva, the limited ego, meaning the seeker, has also to take three steps forward, to reach across the delusion of the three worlds of sleep, dream and waking. The meditator can measure these three "worlds" in three steps and arrive at his own original Real Nature in his inner mystic experience.
535. Tridasaadhyakshah - "The Lord of the three steps"-the 'three steps' are waking, dream and deep-sleep. One who is the Witness of the 'three steps' is the Self. It can also mean that One who assumes, in His play, the three qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas-and yet. Himself, is not affected by any one of them. 536. Mahaasringah - "The Great-Horned." The term indicates how the Lord in the Fish-incarnation tied the ship to his great horn and sported in the waters of the deluge.
537. Kritaantakrit - He is the destroyer of the "creation." He is the Creator, in our subjective life, of the inactive (taamasa) and positive (saattvic ndrajasa) vaasanaas- the sins and the merits. When the merits are more, the Lord provides a heaven for them to exist and when the sins are more; they move into the lower wombs, where sin-vaasanaas, too, gel exhausted. An individual seeker when he exhausts all the above vaasanaas, rises to the realm of the Self and gets totally identified with the Self. Therefore, Sri Narayana is that State Divine. wherein all created vaasanaas (Krita) get destroyed (Anta) Thus, the end (Anta) of the vaasanaas (Krita) is called "total liberation" (Kritaantam). He who is the giver of the "krita Himself is the giver of "total liberation" (Kritaanta-krit). We find it also interpreted to mean that the Lord is one who has destroyed (Krindanam) Lord Death (Kritaanta) himself. One who is the destroyer 'Kritaanta in this sense we can tak( this term as meaning the Lord who has taken the form of Rudra, the Destroyer-Lord Shiva.
538. Mahaa-Varaahah - One who had manifested as the Great Boar. In order to heave up the world from the slush that formed naturally when the waters of the deluge receded. This is the third of the Lord's incarnations. 539. Govindah - One who is to be known (Vid) through the declarations of the Vedanta (Go). 540. Sushenah - He who has a charming army. The army of Vishnu is called as His Ganas. They are mainly constituted of the great sages and hence, their compelling enchantment.
541. Kanakaangadee - The bright-as-gold armlets. Armlets are ornaments worn on the upper arm covering the shoulder and the top portion of the arm.
542. Guhyah - The mysterious; the Profound. Due to the profound nature of the Truth even in the Upanishads the essential theme is mysteriously secretive. Therefore, the entire Upanishadic literature is called as "the secret literature." Vishnu is to be realised in the secret chambers of the heart, so He is called as the Supreme "Secret" (Guhya).
543. Gabheerah - "The Unfathomable." Even the Upanishads declare that He is unknown. The limited human intellect cannot apprehend or visualise, or plumb the depth of, or unravel the mystery of His Wisdom, Power, Strength or Purity.
544. Gahanah - He is impenetrable; Imponderable. We cannot dash into the domain of His Nature Divine. Through surrender alone can we reach the realm of the Self.
545. Guptah - The Well-concealed. He is not easily revealed by words. Nor can the sense organs ever recognise Him. All the Upanishads repeatedly declare that the Self being the very "subject," the instruments of the body, mind and intellect can never apprehend Him. He can only be apprehended by a steady mind that has been purified by continuous- meditation "Being the hidden nature of all beings he not manifested."
546. Chakra-gadaa-dharah - One who the bearer of the Discus and the Mace. His Chakra is call( Sudarsana; His Gadaa is called Kaumodakee. The anciel Acharyas have declared that the Discus represents the Mir and the Mace represents the intellect.
547. Vedhaah - One who is the Creator of the whole universe, the Supreme who is expressing Himself for the apparent function of creating the world of plurality. The Infinite Truth functioning through the Total-Mind is the Creator-Hiranyagarbha. According to Amarakosha, 'Creator is called as Srashtaa' Prajaapatih or Vedhaah
548. Svaangah - It is commented upon by some, as one who is beautiful, who has well proportioned limbs. This meaning emphasises the glory and beauty of the form of the enchanting Vishnu. The same term can also be interpreted as "Self-instrumental." For the projection of the pluralistic phenomenal world. He has no instrument other than Himself. The Lord not only creates everything from Himself but He, Himself, is the instrumental cause for the world. We have already indicated earlier that in the making of anything, three causes must come into play, the "material-cause" (mud), the "instrumental-cause" (the pot-maker's wheel) and the "efficient cause" (the intelligent pot-maker). In the case of the creation of the universe all these three causes are intrinsically the Lord alone. Thus, He is the material, from which He creates the world by Himself. This idea is expressed here when the compelling beauty of the Lord's form is being indicated by the precious term "Self-instrumental."
549. A-Jitah - One who is vanquished by none- unconquered-and therefore, the unconquerable in any of His incarnations. We never meet Him as vanquished in any of his confrontations with mighty evil.
550. Krishnah - One who incarnated in the Yaadava tribe as the son of Vasudeva and Devakee. It is commented upon as 'one who served the Hindu Spiritual World in the form of Krishna Dvaipaayana which is the full name of Vyasa, the author of the Puranas. However, Krishna also means 'The Dark'; the one great Infinite Consciousness that plays in us constantly, because of which we are aware of our experiences, and yet, never can we directly apprehend this Source of Alllife within ourselves. The Krishna is the "unknown factor" that expresses through us-whose manifestations are all our physical, mental and intellectual capabilities. He is, therefore, called as the "Unknown, the Dark" - Krishna.


551. Dridhah - "The Finn." One who is firm in His convictions, judgements, love and mercy. It is in this sense that the Bhakti Marga describes the Lord often as 'A-Dridhah^ especially when a sinner prostrates before Him; meaning that in full repentance were a criminal to surrender himself to the Lord's Feet, the Infinite Justice even wavers and becomes anxious to help the sinner out of his mistaken notions and his consequent ugly actions. The Lord is ever vigilant to re-establish such a one in his own wisdom, which is his real nature.
552. Sankarshano-achyutah — During the great dissolution of the entire universe of names and forms, He, being the one who merges the entire plurality into His own essence—He is called ^Sankarshanah.'1 When an individual sleeps, his entire world of experiences get absorbed into himself and they all remain in seed condition in the 'Causal-body* as mere vaasanaas. One who never falls away from His own ess- ential nature is called 'Achyutah'—one who knows no fall (Chyutih). The one expression used here for the Lord is the combination of both these terms. The Lord Narayana who absorbs the whole world into Himself at the time of the deluge, and He who never falls away from His own Real Nature.
553. Varunah — Since, in the evening, the sun reaches the western horizon (Varuna-Dik) the sun is called Varunah. Also after his day's functioning in the world, in the dusk he gathers his scorching rays unto himself and disappears. Like the setting sun, the Lord withdraws all the pluralistic world unto Himself. The Eternal Reality, functioning through the sun as the sun's energy and light, is described in the Upanishads as the 'Golden One', and hence the appropriateness of using this term Varunah for Narayana. The designation Soorya- Narayana is very familiar to the students of Purana.
554. Vaarunah — The son of Varunah is called Vaarunah. Both Vasishtha and Agastya are traditionally consi- dered as sons of Varunah. Therefore, the term indicates the Lord, who manifested himself as Vasishtha or Agastya. Where- ever there is an explosive expression of any spectacular glory of stupendous achievement, "understand them all as coming out of my glory," says Krishna in the Bhagavad Geeta.*
The term can also be read in some manuscripts as A- Vaarunah—meaning, according to some commentators, "one whose nature is never subject to veiling."
555. Vrikshah — In the Upanishads the world emerging out of the Supreme Brahman is described meta- phorically as a 'Tree'; in the Kathopanishad and in the Geeta, we read of the Samsaara-Vriksha—the Tree of Life—exhaus lively described. In the Puranas, again we find, in more than 3 or 4 places, exhaustive descriptions of the world manifested from the Lord as a 'Tree.'
556. Pushkaraakshah — One who has eyes (Aksha) as beautiful as the lotus flowers (Pushkara); the de- scriptive epithet: 'Lotus-eyed.' The Sanskrit term ' Pushkara' also means the Universal-Space, thus, it also has the inter- pretation, "one who is ever pervading all space."
557. Mahaamanaah — "One who has a great mind." Narayana as the Lord (Eesvara) is the Supreme Con- sciousness functioning through the Total-Mind, and He, with His Mind, creates, sustains and destroys, fulfilling the great game of Samsar, continuously.
558. Bhagavaan — The word ‘Bhaga’ according to the Great Vishnu Purana means, "One who has all the Six Great Glories—Wealth, Power, Dharma, Fame, Character, Knowledge and Dispassion—is called 'Bhagavaan'." Again, Vishnu Purana says: "He is named Bhagavaan who knows (a) the beginning and the end, (b) the arrival and the departure of beings, and also (c) Vidyaa and Avidyaa." One who has all these Six Glories in Himself alone is Bhagavan and these great mighty powers automatically come to Him, because His equipment is the Total-mind.
559. Bhagahaa — One who destroys, during the deluge, the Six Glories just mentioned. At this time, the Lord absorbs everything unto Himself, and in this sense the term, "destroyer of all these great glories" (Bhagahaa) means only a destruction as in the case, say, of Napoleon who, while sleeping, absorbed unto himself all his glories. When thus the Total- mind rests from its self-willed projections, the world of plurality appears to have been absorbed by the Lord unto Himself.
560. Aanandee —"The one who gives delight." The Lord is Himself Absolute Bliss, and those devotees who move towards Him in pure surrender, come to share His divine nature of All-Bliss. There is a version wherein we read this term as 'Nandee' . Here, too, there is no difference in meaning. Also this term indicates: "Son of Nandagopaala"— Lord Krishna—Who was nurtured and tended by Yasodaa and Nandagopaala throughout His childhood.
561. Vanamaalee — One who wears always a garland of leaves and flowers named Vaijayantee. Vaishnavas declare this to represent the subtle aspect of the very five ele- ments themselves, (Bhoota-tanmaatraas).
562. Halaayudhah — "One who has the plough as His weapon." He is the brother of Lord Krishna, Bala- bhadra, who is considered as the eighth Incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Even today in our country the farmers repeat Bala- rama's name while ploughing for a successful cultivation and profitable harvest.
563. Aadityah — One who was born as the son of Aditi and Kasyapa as Vaamana, who begged of Emperor Bali three steps of ground and got all the three worlds.
564. Jyotir-aadityah — "The Supreme who is the resplendence in the Sun." The Atman expressing as the glorious light and energy in the Sun is meditated upon as Lord Vishnu. "One must meditate upon Vishnu who is adorned fully, holding in His hands the Conch and the Discus, sitting in Padmaasana, enveloped in golden hue, in the centre of the orb of the Sun." The Deity residing in t1- , disc of the Sun is Narayana Himself, "^"—'from Vishnu'; "ityah"—to be obtained'. From Vishnu, salvation is to be obtained and so He is called as Aaditya. This interpretation gives us an insight into the meaning of the word Sun, in Sanskrit—'Aaditya'': "One from whom all creatures have to receive"! The great-grand- giver is the Sun.
565. Sahishnuh — One who calmly endures the pairs-of-opposites. One who is above them, and thus is never influenced by these experiences of the physical and mental realms.
566. Gatisattamah — The ultimate refuge for all devotees; the best (Highest) destination and at once the noblest path. Lord Narayana represents the Supreme Brahman, the final state of liberation, and the path to reach. It is also worship of, and meditation upon. Lord Narayana. "Gati" means both the goal and the path. In short. One who is Himself the very essence of spiritual liberation.
567. Sudhanvaa (^^rr)—One who has His glorious bow—called "Saarnga." According to some, it represents the sense organs and their activities.
568. Khanda-parasuh — One who has the axe- weapon—called "Parasu." The Lord used this weapon in His Incarnation as Parasuraama, the son of Jamadagni. It is endo- wed with terrible prowess in cutting down the unholy enemies of the nobler life and so it is called as the "Khanda-Parasu." As such it means 'one who wields the invincible Parasu.'
569. Daarunah —"The one who is merciless towards the unrighteous." Up to a point the Lord is All-mercy— but when He finds that no other method can save the individual, like a surgeon at the operation theatre. He appears to be relentless—merciless.
570. Dravina-pradah — One who lavishly gives wealth asked for by His devotees. According to Vyasa, Lord Vishnu gives to his true devotees the wealth of the Sastra knowledge—the deeper and clearer understanding of the Science of Reality.
571. Divah-sprik — "The Sky-reaching." The Lord who revealed His Universal Form to Arjuna in the Bhagavad-Gita.
572. Sarva-drik-vyaasah —When considered as one word it means: "One who creates many omniscient men of wisdom." One who encourages the spread of knowledge and thus turns out many men of wisdom and clearer understanding of life and the world. Or taken as two words its interpretation can mean: "One who is Omniscient and Vyasa." This would mean, "The Lord who has expressed Him- self as Sri Veda Vyasa." Vyasa is the poet-philosopher who codified, compiled and edited the Vedas and published them in four volumes—Rig Veda, with its 21 branches; Yajur Veda, with its 101 branches: Saama Veda, with its 1000 branches and the Atharvana Veda, with its 9 branches (or Saakhaas). He is the one who gave us the 18 Puranas and the Brahmasootras. Hence he is called: "The Omniscient Vyasa."
573. Vaachaspatir-ayonijah — One who is a master of all knowledge (Vidyaas) and who is unborn through a mother's womb.
574. Trisaamaa — "One who has been glorified by the three Saamas." 'Saama' means divine songs—hence, Veda. The one who has been praised by the singers of the Saama-Veda, those called as the Devas, the Vratas and the Saamans.
575. Saamagah — "The singer of the Saaman songs." One who performs the actions prescribed in the Saama Veda and who invokes the Lord is called, in Vedic terminology, the 'Udgaataa’.
576. Saama —The Lord is the Saama Veda. This is to indicate the sacredness of the very Book. Lord Krishna has confessed in the Geeta: "Of Vedas I am the Saama Veda."*
577. Nirvaanam — The Lord is of the very nature of "Ever-liberated, Ever-free." There is no trace of imperfection and sorrow in Him whose nature is, All-Bliss.
578. Bheshajam — 'Bheshajam' means 'medicine.' Hence, He who is the very specific cure for the disease of Samsar (change, becoming).
579. Bhishak — One who is the 'Physician,' who is the 'cure' for the disease of Samsar. Or it can also mean that the Lord manifested during the "churning of the Milky Ocean" as the Deity of Medicine, holding the pot of Amrita in His hand — The Lord Dhanvantari. In Indian systems of Medi- cines, He is considered as the presiding Deity of the Medical Sciences. Vishnu manifested as this Lord of Doctors, whereupon this name for Him: "Doctor" (Bhishak).
580. Samnyaasa-krit — Lord is the institutor of the fourth stage of life (Aasrama) called 'Samnyaasa' which is meant for those who walk the path of total renunciation. The One who, in His Infinite Grace, gives the needed qualifications unavoidable for Samnyaasa.
581. Samah — "The Calm." One who exists without the mind running out into the passions of the sense-organs.
In Samnyaasa, He teaches the life of calmness and quietud and in the accumulated inner peace, the final experience is gained. The Smriti* prescribes the duties of the four stage; as: "The duty of the 'Brahmachari' is service; for the 'House holder', charity; for the 'Forest-dweller' is the duty of restraint and for the 'Samnyaasin' 'Calmness'. Samnyaasa without Same is inconceivable and this 'Calmness' is His nature.
582. Saantah — One who is quiet within, as in Him the sense-organs are perfectly controlled. The Upanishads glorify the Supreme State as actionless, partless, peaceful. This is a declaration from Sveta-asvatara Upanishad.
583. Nishthaa — The Abode of all beings, not only while living, but during the Pralaya (deluge). During this Cosmic dissolution, the entire living creatures merge back into their Vaasanaas, (seed-form), and remain in Him. Therefore, He is called, "The Abode of the Universe."
584. Saantih — "One whose very nature is Peace." Agitations are caused by desires and the consequent temptations to strive for, acquire and indulge in them. In the All-Full, there is no desire, hence He need not seek His ful- filment among the perishable objects of the universe, and so He is Peace.
585. Paraayanam — The Supreme Goal is Narayana. After reaching Him there is no return.*** In short, the term indicates that Narayana is the way to the Supreme Liberation (Moksha).
586. Subhaangah — One who has the most beautiful form. That one who is enchanting, most handsome.
587. Saantidah — Narayana dispenses that Peace which puts an end to likes and dislikes (Raaga-Dvesha). He is the One who cleanses the mind of His devotees and gives to each the inner Peace and Joy.
588. Srashtaa — "The Creator of all beings." In the beginning. He has created all from Himself as the Great Five Elements: (Viranchi). 589. Kwnudah — The reveller in the Earth. The term 'AM' means Earth. Therefore, the term means "He who delights in the Earth."
590. Kuvalesayah — He who reclines in the waters (Kuvala). Waters surround the earth, thus it is called as Kuvala. The term can also mean the 'Crawler'—meaning Ser- pent. In this sense it indicates—" Sarpa-Saaye": "One who reclines upon the Great Sesha"—the Divine "Sesha-Saaye."
591. Go-hitah — One who does the Cow-wel- fare-work, always. Sree Krishna, through many incidents, helps to develop and conserve the sacred animal, Cow, for, the very existence of Bharat's dispensation depends upon the Cow; the agriculture being essentially Cow-centred also means Earth. Thus: "One who saved the world" from the materialists and their designs of excesses and imperfect vision. One who protects against the irresponsible havoc, for example, of Ravana and others; all inimical to the genius of the natural Bhaarateeya Samskriti.
592. Go-patih — "The husband of the Earth." Or, 6ne who is the Lord protecting all those who are weary of their samsaaric life c 'passions and desires. Such ones, exhausted by grazing in the pastures of dissipation and enervated from the world of happenings, are comparable to cows. Hence Narayana is called here as the "Lord of the Cows",—'Gopaala.' 'Go' also may be interpreted as 'sense-organs'. In this way the term suggests "Lord of the Sense-Organs," Sri Narayana, the Self.
593. Goptaa —The root 'Gup' (ni) has two meanings: to protect; to veil. Thus 'Goptaa' can imply "One who protects the universe" or "One who, by His Maayaa, veils the glory of the Divine Self within."
594. Vrishabhaakshah — One whose eyes rain fulfilment of all desires of His devotees. He sees the un- expressed desires of His devotees and fulfils them easily. Or it can be taken that Sri Narayana is "One whose eyes are Dharma Itself"; meaning. One who sees righteousness clearly and continuously. If one wants to see clearly righteousness, he must cultivate and develop the Narayana vision.
595. Vrisha-priyah: — Vishnu delights in Dharma. 'Vrisha' means 'Dharma,' so the term can be dissolved as "One who delights in Dharma". Or it can signify, "One who is beloved of the virtuous, the Good."
596. Anivartee — "One who never knows retreat." During the clashes between the Good (Devas) and the Bad (A suras), Narayana never retreats. He is One Who never turns back from Dharma; for He is its friend and protector.
597. Nivritta-atmaa — One who is fully restrained from all sense indulgences. So long as the equipments of our experiences—the Body, Mind and Intellect—are roaming about in their pleasures—among objects, emotions and thoughts—our attention is dissipated and is not available for the contemplation of the Higher, the Self. Narayana is the Atman in all, and to reach Him we have to retire from the fields of our indulgences. Hence, He is indicated as the "Re- strained-Self." 598. Samksheptaa — The One who absorbs unto Himself the entire universe of multiplicity during the dissolution—the "Involver." Narayana presides over not only the evolution but also is the controller at the involution. In some readings, we find this term as "Asamksheptaa"—meaning "One who never abandons His devotees."
599. Kshema-krit —"The doer of Good"; One who protects and guides the devotees. "Kshema" signifies protecting what has been gained, and it includes " Yoga" also, meaning "acquiring things not yet gained." In Geeta, Lord Krishna promises that "I shall govern both your 'Yoga' and 'Kshema' when you are a true devotee."*
600. Sivah — Lord Narayana is adored here as Sivah and, at the same time, all Vaishnavites repeat Vishnu- sahasranaama. Human prejudices have no logic or reason. Sri Narayana is Siva (auspiciousness) and there is no difference between the two. "I am the dweller of Vaikuntha, Vishnu. Between us there is no difference," **so says Lord Siva Himself. Vishnu is the "Purifier" (Siva), as His names, when chanted, and His form-divine, when meditated upon, become a means of quietening the mind and sharpening our perceptions of the subtler and the transcendental.

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