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Friday, March 16, 2012

SRI VISHNU 1000 NAMES -- 1 TO 200


(1) Visvam: He whose manifestation is the whole universe of forms: the Viraat-Purusha. The cause is always present in the effects and as such That Form from which the whole universe has emerged out can only be its own manifestation. The whole cosmos of gross forms is His own expression, and therefore. He is called as Viraat purusha. 'Sa eva Sarva Bhootaatmaa Visvaroopo Yato Avyayah’. The Sanskrit term Visvarn comes from the root Vis, to enter: Thus it means He who has created and entered into the entire universe, as the All-Pervading Reality. It can also mean. That into which the entire universe has entered to remain therein established. In the Upanishads also we have assertions of similar ideas, t It is only when intellectually, we view the Lord that we come to recognise Him as the 'cause’ for the universe. When viewed through contemplation, since the effect is nothing other than the cause, there can be no world other than Him. In fact, there is nothing other than the Supreme. In the Mandukya Upanishad we read ‘0mkaara Evedam Sarvam’. In Geeta "OM Ityekaaksharam Brahma".
(2) Vishnuh: The term Vishnu is dissolved as Veveshti Vyaapnoti iti Vishnuh—That which pervades everywhere is Vishnu.
That which has the nature of pervasiveness is Vishnu. He is the one who pervades all and nothing ever pervades Him. "Eesaavaasyam Idam Sarvarn"—All this is indwelt, pervaded by the Lord. This very same idea is described in the typical style of the Puranas, in the incarnation of the Lord as Vaamana, the short-boy, who, with His three feet, measured the entire universe. Because of this act, the Lord got the name Vishnu, says Mahaabhaarata.
The root Vis means 'to enter'. The entire world of things and beings is pervaded by Him and the Upanishad emphatically insists in its mantra 'whatever that is there is the world of change'. Hence it means that He is not limited by space (Desa), time (Kaala) or substance (Vastu).
(3) Vashatkaarah: --ln the ritualistic portion of the Vedas we find many mantras ending with 'vashat' and they are used in pouring devoted and dedicated oblations. Thus the term Vashatkaara means: He who is invoked, and for propitiating whom, the oblations are poured in Vedic ritualism, using mantras ending with vashat.
Also Vashatkaara can mean yajna in its association and thus the term in its suggestion can signify 'He who is of the form of the Yajna'. In the Upanishads also we find this meaning endorsed when the Upanishad mantra says: “Yajno vai Vishnuh" —Yajna itself is Vishnu.
(4) Bhoota-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuh: — He who is the Lord (Prabhu) of the Past (Bhoota), the Future (Bhavya) and the Present (Bhavat). Time is the concept of the intellect; it expresses itself in the interval between experiences. Experiences are registered as thoughts and thoughts are ever-changing. This very change is known and experienced by us. The knower of the change must be something other than the change. Thus, He who is the Illuminator of all changes, meaning the Consciousness (Aatman) is the Lord Vishnu. He is the One who is not conditioned by time.
(5) Bhoota-krit: -The Creator (Krit) of all creatures (Bhoota). This word can be dissolved in two ways:
  • One who creates the creatures (Bhootaani Karoti iti Bhoota' Krit) or
  • One who annihilates all creatures (Bhootaani Krindati iti Bhoota-krit), In both these cases, Brahman, the Supreme is the One Reality that seems to function as the Creator, Sustainer or Destroyer, when He functions through different gunas in the Total-Mind. Functioning through a preponderance in Rajoguna, He becomes the 'Creator'; through Sattvaguna the 'Sustainer', and through Tamoguna, He Himself expresses as the 'Destroyer'.
Subjectively, the Atman functioning through my own mind and intellect is I, the individuality. My personality entirely depends upon the quality and texture of my own thoughts. I myself become according to the moods of my mind the creator, sustainer and annihilator of my world of experiences. He who manifests and functions, in these three aspects, is the Supreme Vishnu.
(6) Bhoota-bhrit: —One who nurtures and nourishes all beings (living creatures) in all their attitudes is this Great Reality and, therefore. He is called as the Bhoota Bhrit. In Geeta there is an elaborate description of this idea in the 15th Chapter where the Lord points out how. He, as the light in the sun, fertility in the earth, growth in the plants, nourishment in food, heat in fire,—becomes Himself the 'eater', and, therefore, how He Himself presides over all the functions of the body and mind, and apparently nurtures and nourishes the creatures, who are in fact nothing other than Himself.
(7) Bhaavah: -One who 'becomes' (Bhavati iti Bhaavah) Himself into the movable and the Immovable beings and things in the world. He is the Pure Existence in all the sentient organisms and the insentient objects in the universe. Hence He is indicated by the term Bhaavah.
(8) Bhootaatmaa: -He is the Aatman of all the beings: The very 'Be' in all the living beings. Just as the same universal space plays in all rooms as the room-space, or in all pots as the pot-space, so the Infinite Life playing through any given vehicle is called the Aatman of the vehicle. It is well known that space everywhere is one and the same; so too, the One Reality sports as though different Aatmans. This One Universal Soul is called in Vedanta the Supreme Brahman (Para-Brahman). In Bhaagavata, the Lord is addressed as "You are the One Self in all living creatures ever illumining all their experiences'" In Kathopanishad: "The One enchanting Truth that revels in every form manifesting in plurality”
(9) Bhoota-bhaavanah: -One who creates and multiplies the creatures; meaning the One, who is the cause for the birth and who is responsible for the growth of all living creatures.
(10) Poota-atmaa: —One with an extremely Pure (Pootam) Essence; One who is not affected the least by the impurities of Maayaa. The Self is beyond all vaasanaas and, therefore. He cannot be affected by any one of the manifestations of Maayaa such as thoughts of the intellect, emotions of the mind or the perceptions of the body. Immaculate is ever the Self, and so He is termed as the Pure Self (Poota-Aafmaa).
(11) Parama-atmaa: —The Supreme, meaning that which transcends all limitations and imperfections of matter: in short, the Transcendental Reality. The Spirit is other than matter, and that in its presence, the vestures of matter, borrowing their dynamism from Him, play their parts rhythmically at all times. This has been the assertion found chorus repeated in all the Upanishads and in the entire Vedantic literature. Sankara in Aatma Bodha points out that the Self is other than the three bodies and that He functions in the microcosm as a king in the nation. It was also said therein that matter borrows its energy from the Spirit and continues its activity "as the world from the Sun".
Kathopanishad and the Geeta guide us from the outer levels of our personality, stage by stage, into the inner-most sanctum, and there, the teachers declare, is He the Infinite, transcending all, reigning in His own glory. "In short, that which remains other than the cause and effect—Maayaa and matter—is He, the Parama Aatman. In Vishnu Purana this Supreme is glorified as Maha Vishnu (Paramaatmaa)" —Vishnu Purana
(12) Muktaanaam pararnaa gatih: —He who is the final Goal, that is reached by all the liberated souls. The limitations and bondages lived through by man are in fact the destiny of the matter vestures. Through delusion of ununderstanding, we identify with them and come to suffer the consequent sense of imperfections. To liberate ourselves from the thraldom of matter is to realize the Self. Hence the Truth is defined as the Supreme Goal of the emancipated.
This ‘Goal’ to be attained is called as 'Gati' in Sanskrit. ”The Supreme Goal" (Pararnaa Gafih) would necessarily be then that Goal, having reached which, there is no return: 'There where having gone, men never return. That sacred place is My seat" — Geeta Ch. 15. St. 6. In Geeta. (Ch. 8. St. 16) even more explicitly the same idea has been asserted by Sri Krishna when He says: "0 Son of Kunti, having reached Me, there shall be no more any re-birth"
Again, He defines the final Goal as "That having reached no return again" - Geeta Ch. 15, St. 4.
(13) Avyayah: —"Vyaya" means destruction; destruction cannot be without change; therefore, that which is "without destruction" (Avyayah) is the changeless. The Indestructible, and therefore, changeless, can never have any modifications (Parinaama). For, modification is but the death of a previous condition and the birth of a new condition. The Eternal and the Immutable (Avyayah) is the Supreme Sat-chit-aananda, and every other thing and being come under the hammer of change. The medium in which all these changes are sustained is Brahman, the immutable. The Upanishads glorify Him as “Ajaro Amaro Avyayah"--without old age, death or change.
(14) Purushah: -One who dwells in the Fort-city (Puri sete iti Purushah) Herein metaphorically the Rishis conceive our body as a fortress with nine gate-ways— "Nava DvaarePure Dehee' --(Geeta Ch. 5, St. 13) —and declare the One who rules within it, like a king, is the Self.
This term can also be dissolved in two more different ways giving more and more suggestions to the nature of the Self. Thus, Purusha can mean "That which was before all creatures" —Puraa Aaseet iti Purushah or it can be "One who completes and fulfils the Existence everywhere", meaning, without whom Existence is impossible (Poorayati iti Purushah).
This Aatman remains in the bodies of living creatures as their individuality (Jeeva) and in all the activities, physical, mental and intellectual, Aatman is not in fact involved but He is therein only an observer of all that is happening. This will become clear in the following discussion.
(15) Saakshee: -Witness. In every day life he is a witness who without any mental reservation or personal interest observes and watches what is happening in a given field of experience. "Saakshaad Drashtari Saakshee syaad—-'Amarakosa. "The 'Knower’ in every bosom is the same Supreme Self", says Lord Krishna (Geeta Ch. 13, St. 3). Though thus Consciousness illumines everything. It is only a Witness, as It knows no change. Just as the sun illumines every thing in the world and yet the Sun is not affected by the condition of the things it is illumining, so too Vishnu, the Supreme, illumines all, without Itself undergoing any change.
According to Paanini Sutras the word Saakshee is derived from "Sa + akshi", meaning "direct perceiver".
(16) Kshetrajnah: —One who knows the body and all the experiences from within the body, is the Knower-of-the field, Kshetrajnah. As Brahmapurana would put it: Bodies are 'fields' and the Atman illumines them all without an effort, and therefore, is called Knower-of-the-field, kshetrajnah'.
(17) Aksharah: —Indestructible: things which are finite are necessarily conditioned by time and space; the Infinite is unconditioned, and so It is Aksharah. Since It is Indestructible, It cannot come under the methods of universal destruction arising from nature or through the willful actions of man. "It cannot be cleaved by instruments of destruction, nor can fire burn It, nor water drench It, nor air dry It"—(Geeta Ch. 2, St. 23). It is also indicated that the Supreme Brahman is the Akshara--' Aksharam Brahma Paramam' --(Geeta Ch. 8, St. 3).
(18) Yogah: —The one who is to be known or realized through yoga. By withdrawing the sense-organs from their objects of preoccupation, when the mind of the seeker becomes quietened, he is lifted to a higher plane-of-consciousness, wherein he attains "yoga", meaning wherein he realizes the Reality. At such moments of equanimity and mental quiet "yoga" is gained: Samatvarn yoga uchyate—(Geeta Ch. 2, St. 48).
Since He is experienced through Yoga He is known as Yogah.
(19) Yoga-vidaamnetaa: —One who guides all the activities of all men who knows yoga (Yogavit). To all men of realization. He who is the Ideal, is the Supreme Lord. Just as our activities are today ordered by our selfishness and individuality, the Ideal that commands and orders all activities in the bosom of a Man of Realization is his God-Consciousness. This realm of experience is Mahaa Vishnu. In the Geeta also we find the same idea expressed, in the language of emotion, when the Lord says: "Those who contemplate upon Me with total dedication, their daily welfare and spiritual progress I shall bear".
(20) Pradhaana-purusha-eesvarah: — Lord of both Pradhaana and Purusha. The term Pradhaana means 'maayaa'--the total cause for the entire universe of forms. Purusha indicates the individuality in each one of us—the Jeeva. Lord Eesvara means the Master (Eeshte iti Eesvarah). The Lord of Maayaa and Jeeva means the one who makes both these possible to exist and function. The One Infinite Reality which Itself manifests as Maayaa, Jeeva and Eesvara is the Essence in Vishnu.
(21) Naarasimha-vapuh: —One whose form is half human and half lion. This is the famous fourth incarnation of Lord Vishnu which He took in order to destroy the atheistic tyrant Hiranyakasipu and bless his devotee, Prahlaada.
(22) Sreemaan: —One who is always with Sree. Mother Sree is Mother Lakshmi. In the Puranic terminology Lakshmi stands for all powers, all faculties. The total manifested power potential in the Omnipotent is Lakshmi. These powers are ever in Him and therefore, He is the Sreemaan.
(23) Keshavah: -He who has beautiful and graceful (Va) locks of hair (Kesa) is familiar as in Lord Krishna's form. Or, it can also mean, one who destroyed the demon Kesin who was sent to destroy the child-Krishna by his uncle Karnsa. This interpretation is endorsed by the Vishnu Purana.
(24) Purushottamah: —The constitution of the individuality, Jeeva, when analysed, we find that it is made up of both the perishable-matter and the Imperishable-Spirit. The Spirit expressing through matter is the individuality, Jeeva.
Reflected moon is the moon of the heavens dancing on the surface of water. Just as the moon is something different from its reflections and the water surfaces, so too the Self is, in its transcendental nature. Something different from both matter, the perishable, and Spirit, the Imperishable, ever playing in matter. This Transcendental Truth is indicated by the term the Supreme Purusha (Purughottama).
(25) Sarvah: -He who is the all. He being the One cause from which have sprung forth all things and beings. He himself is the all. In Mahabharata dyoga Parva we read: "As He is the origin and end of all, whether existent or otherwise, and as He, at all times, recognizes all. He is called ‘Sarva'. All waves rise from the same ocean and, therefore, the ocean is the very essence in all waves.
(26) Sarvah: -The Auspicious One: meaning, the One who gives auspiciousness to those who hear of Him, to those who have a vision of Him, and to those who meditate upon Him.
(27)
: -The One who is Eternally Pure. In Him can never be any contamination of the imperfection of Rajas and Tamas. 'Non-apprehension of Reality' is Tamas and 'mis-apprehensions of Reality' constitute the Rajas. In the Reality Itself there can be neither of them 'He is Brahman; He is Siva', so the Upanishad declares of the Absolute Oneness, which is Vishnu.
(28) Sthaanuh: -Generally this term Sthaanuh is used for the permanent pillars that mark the frontiers of a country. They are permanent, immovable, fixed. The Truth, that remains thus firm and motionless, without movement, permanently established in Its own Realm of Purity, is called by the term Sthaanuh—-the Pillar. "Eternal, All-Pervading, the Pillar, Motionless (is) this Ancient One," so says Geeta Ch. 2,24.
(29) Bhootaadih: — The very cause for the five great elements: Space, Air, Fire, Water and Earth.
(30) Avyayah Nidhih: -The Imperishable treasure. The term Nidhi means 'that in which precious things are stored away or preserved secretly': (Nidheeyate Asmin iti Nidhih). Therefore, He who is the substratum—container—for the entire universe is the Nidhi. During the dissolution (sleep) the One into Whom all things go to lie merged therein temporarily, till the next projection or creation (waking), as this Immutable Treasure Chest—the Vishnu. Here 'unchangeable’ (Avyaya) is qualifying 'Nidhi'.
(31) Sambhavah: —One who takes up by his own free-will various incarnations for the glory/ of the world is Sambhavah. In fact. He alone is the source of all that is created. In Harivarnsa we read the assertion: "I am the Narayana, the Source from which all creatures and things spring forth", t To uphold Dharma I shall manifest again and again, declares the Lord in His Geeta.
(32) Bhaavanah: —To do Bhaavana is to give: One who gives everything to His devotees is Bhaavanah. The Lord is One who gives both joy and sorrow to each one according to his deserts. In the case of humanity it is He again who destroys the evil and blesses the good.
(33) Bhartaa: —The One who 'Governs' the entire living world. Governing includes protecting the world from all harms and serving it positively and joy. One who does these to all creatures at all limes is Vishnu—-the great Bhartaa.
(34) Prabhavah:—The One who is the very womb of all the Five Great Elements. It is That from which even the very concepts of time and space have sprung from.
(35) Prabhuh: -The Almighty Lord. He who is the All-Powerful. He who has the supreme freedom to do (Kartwn), not to do (Akartum), or to do quite differently from what He had already done (Anyathaa Kartum) is considered as the Prabhuh.
(36) Eesvarah: -One who has the ability to do anything without the help of other beings or things is called Eesvarah.
(37) Svayambhooh: -The one who manifests Himself from Himself is considered as self-made. Everything born or produced must have a cause. The Supreme is the cause from which all effects arise, and Itself has no cause. This uncaused Cause-of-all, this Ultimate Cause, with reference to which every thing else is considered as 'effects' is in itself the Absolute Cause. This idea is indicated by the term Self-made (Svayambhooh).
(38) Sambhuh: -He who brings Auspiciousness— both inner goodness and outer prosperity to His devotees. Sambhuh is one of the famous names of Lord Siva. By using this term in invoking Vishnu, by its suggestion, it declares that Vishnu and Siva are not two Divine Entities, but they are both manifestations of the One Essential Reality.
(39) Aadityah: -The Truth (Purusha) that glows with a golden splendour in the solar orb is called Aadityah. There are twelve Aadityas and of them One is called Vishnu. Krishna Himself declares, 'I am Vishnu among the Aadityas"
— Aadityaanaam Aham Vishnuh—{Geeta Ch. 10, St. 21). The word Aaditya can mean 'Son of Aditya—signifying the one who was born as the son of Aditi in His Vaamana incarnation.
The term Aadityah can also mean in Sanskrit 'One who is like the sun'. The Sun is the one who illumines all, and every living creature draws its nurture and nourishment directly or indirectly always from the sun alone. In the same way Brahman is the one Sun in the universe of living creatures illumining all experiences of all creatures.
(40) Pushkaraakshah: -One who has eyes like the lotus. Joy and Peace in the bosom of an individual are expressed in the world outside at no other point so vividly as in the eyes. The One, whose inner peace and joy, beaming out through His eyes, bring into the devoted hearts all the aesthetic beauty and romantic thrills of seeing a lotus dancing in the breeze. In short, the term indicates the Lord who with His beautiful looks, magically lifts all the sorrows in the devotee's heart and fills it with Peace, Joy and Perfection.
(41) Mahaasvanah: -One who possesses thundering voice of compulsion: Svana means 'sound'. One whose 'call' is thundered in all hearts, familiarly known as the 'compelling whisper' of the Higher. Or, Svanam can also mean 'breath'; and so, the term can mean, 'He whose great breath is the very Vedas'. "Thus, 0 Maitreyee, this has been breathed forth from this great Being what we have as Rigveda, Yajurveda"—Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad (4.4.10). In the Spiritual literature of India we often read Vedas described as His breath; He breathed out the Vedas (Nih-svas~tam).
(42) Anaadi-nidhanah: —One who has neither birth (Aadi) nor death (Nidhanam). Thus One who is changeless is Anaadi-Nidhanam; for, any change should include the death of an old condition and the birth of anewer condition. To the Immortal and the Immutable, change is impossible.
(43) Dhaataa: -One who is the Substratum for the world of names and forms, and who supports all fields of experiences in all. He who is the 'screen' for the 'cinema of empirical experiences' (Visvarn).
(44) Vidhaataa: —The One who is the Dispenser of all 'fruits-of-actions'. In the Karma'kaanda portion of the Vedas, Eesvara is described as the Dispenser of fruit (Karma-phala-daataa Eesvarah). He is the Lord who is behind this universe of scientific truths and rhythm. He is the One who has not only ordered the Laws of Nature, but He is the One, afraid of whom, the phenomena dare not disobey His Laws anywhere at any time. The light of the sun, the heat in the fire, the sweetness in the sugar, the pains in sin and the joys in goodness, are all their 'nature' and none dare ever disobey these laws. The One who is thus the unquestionable Law behind the entire universe of Laws is Vidhaataa.
(45) Dhaatur-uttamah: —The fundamentals that form the reinforcement on any existent thing are called Dhaatu. In the science of life, as explored by the Rishis, all corporal forms have risen from and exist as composed of some definite 'elemental factors' called the Dhoatus. Of the endless varieties of Dhaatus available in existence, the subtlest Dhoatu, without which no existence, is ever possible, is the Chit Dhaatu, and this is Dhaatu-ruttamah.
Though very rarely, we do find some commentators splitting this word into two as Dhaatu and Uttama. But in the majority of cases we find it taken to form one term and explained as the subtlest of the Dhaatus'.
(46) Aprameyah: —He, who cannot be defined and explained in terms of any logical terms of reference with other things, should, necessarily be inexpressible. A thing that can be directly perceived (Pratyaksha) can be described, certain other things, which we may not directly perceive, but can infer (anumaana) them from data available. And there are yet things which can be brought home to the listener by describing them in terms of similar other objects (Upamaa). Since the Infinite has no 'Properties' It cannot be perceived, nor can It be 'Understood through inference,’ not even explained in terms of similar or dissimilar things." Hence the Supreme Reality, Vishnu, is called as Aprameyah. We can experience Him only byending all sense of 'separativeness' and becoming one with Him.
(47) Hrisheekesah: - In the Puranic literature the meaning for this term is 'close-cropped' or 'One who has coiled up his locks of hair' (Hris + Kesa). It can also be interpreted as the Lord of the senses (Hrisheeka + Eesa). The term 'Hrisheeka' is an obsolete one now, and it means the "senseorgans". TheAatman, the Self, as Consciousness is the One who gives light to all the sense-organs and, therefore. It is the Lord of the sense-organs. This Lord is Vishnu.
The obsolete word Hrisheeka also means the 'rays' or 'that which gives joy'. Thus the term Hrisheekesah can mean "The Lord of the rays": the Sun and the Moon. This way interpreted, commentators point out that the term Hrisheekesah means He who has Himself become the Sun and the Moon.
In His manifestation as the Sun and the Moon, the Lord Himself whips the world to wakeful activities and sends the world to sleep and rest. Thus Hrisheekesa in its deeper significance, is, to all contemplative hearts, the Lord, who becomes Himself the world, exhausts Himself in His activities, and ultimately packs His toys and goes to rest at the time of dissolution.
(48) Padmanaabhah: -One from whose navel springs the Lotus, which is the seat of the tout-faced Creator, Brahmaaji. Lotus in Hinduism represents the seat of either Truth or any of Its manifested powers. The creative faculties in man flow from the navel area (centre), and manifest as the Tour-faced' inner equipment (Antahkarana) constituted of the mind, intellect, Chit and ego.
In the Yoga-sastras, we find a lot of details regarding this concept. According to them every "idea" springs from Him (Paraa), and then at the navel area, each of them comes to be 'perceived' (Pasyantee). Thereafter they play in the bosom as thoughts (Madhyamaa), and at last they are expressed (Vaikharee) in the outer fields-of-activity. In this discussion—upon the evolutionary stages through which every "idea" becomes an "action"—we gather a clearer insight into the meaning of the symbolism of "the Creator seated on the lotus", which springs forth from the navel of the Lord, the Supreme Vishnu.
(49) Amaraprabhuh: —The Lord of the Immortals, the Devas. The Denizens of the Heavens, including all the office bearers therein (Dikpaalakas etc.) along with Indra, are called Devas and they enjoy in their heavenly state a relative immortality. They live and continue functioning till the great dissolution—the Sleep of the Creator. Compared with the short span of the existence of man on this globe, the aeons through which the Devas live can be considered as endless or immortal. One who serves them with His might, giving protection and security to all creatures, is called, therefore, Amaraprabhuh.
(50) Visvakarmaa: —The very creator—of the world-of-objects, of all equipments-of-experiences, and of all experiences in all bosoms is called the Visva'Karmaa. Herein the Infinite Lord is but a Witness of all that is happening and though the experienced world is sustained in Him, He is not involved in the imperfections or mortality, that are happening all around at all times in the Visvarn. “They are in Me, I am not in them"—Geeta.
(51) Manuh -The term means One who has the ability to reflect upon the Higher (Mananaseelah Manuh). Manu also means mantra and so, as applied to the Lord, it can mean as the One who has manifested Himself in the form of the Vedic mantras.
(52) Tvashtaa -One who makes gross things of huge dimensions into minutest particles At the time, of the world's dissolution, the entire gross-world folds back into its subtler elements until at last pure objectless space alone "` to remain.
(53) Sthayishthah - It is the superlative degree of gross (sthoala) and thus 'the Supremely gross" is the subtlest Reality The contradiction that it contains is itself its vigour and beauty. The Infinite as the subtlest is All-Pervading in Its own nature. It is this Maha-Vishnu who has Himself become the entire universe of gross things and beings. Just as all waves are the ocean, the total world of gross things is itself the form of Vishnu.
In His cosmic form, Narayana had manifested to Arjuna in the Geeta. There the words of Arjuna's chant will clearly bring home to us that the entire gross world is ever His own Divine form.
(54) Sthaviro Dhruvah -The Ancient (Sthavirah) and the Motionless or firm (Dhruvah). He is callec the 'Ancient' because the very first 'unit of time' itself had risen from Him. He was the progenitor of the very concept of Tim in us. Therefore, 'Time' cannot condition Him. Thus He be comes the most Ancient. He is the 'Firm Truth'; nothing that happens in the phenomenal world can affect Him at any time.
(55) Agraahyah -That which cannot be perceived through the play of the sense-organs; in short, that which is not an 'object' of perception, but which is the very 'subject'-who is the Perceiver in all that is perceived. The 'Subject can never become the 'object', and hence Truth is something that the sense-organs cannot apprehend, as they do any other sense-objects. He is the one 'Subject' ever-perceiving all objects, through all sense-organs of all living creatures, everywhere, at all times. The Lord is the 'Subject', not only in the sense-organs, but He is the "feeler" in the mind and the "thinker" in the intellect.
And thus the sense-organs cannot perceive It, nor the mind feel It, nor the intellect apprehend It; says the Upanishads "That from which words retire unapproached along with the mind" is the Supreme. Hence He is Agraahya--Imperceptible and Incomprehensible. Kenopanishad is very clear and emphatic: "That which the eyes cannot perceive, but because of which eyes are perceiving, understand That to be Brahman (Maha Vishnu) and not that which you here worship."
(56) Saasvatah -That which remains at all times the same is the Permanent, . That which is permanent, should remain Changeless in all the three periods of time. In short. He is unconditioned by time. The Supreme Consciousness Itself is the very Illuminator of Time, and the Illuminator can never be affected by what It illumines. This changeless reality is Vishnu.
(57) Krishnah-The word Krishna means in Sanskrit 'the dark'. The Truth that is intellectually appreciated, but spiritually not apprehended, is considered as 'veiled behind some darkness'.
The root Krishna means Existence (Sattaa) and na means Bliss (Aananda). So says Vyasa in Mahabharata, Udyoga Parva 70, 5. Therefore Krishna (Krish+na) means Existence. Bliss Thus, the very name divine, 'Krishna', represents the Supreme Paramaatman. Or, because of His dark-blue complexion He is called as Krishna. Mahabharata Santi Parva 343 says, "As My colour is dark-blue, I am called Krishna, 0 Arjuna."
In Mahabharata, we find Krishna explaining Himself to Arjuna 'when the earth becomes shelled in by its hard crux I shall turn myself into an iron plough-share and shall plough the earth.
Apart from the above meaning Krishna also means the Enchanter of all His devotees (Aakarshana). Truth is One which irresistibly attracts everybody towards Itself. Commentators have interpreted this significance in a more attractive context. They conclude that Krishna means One who sweeps away the sins in the heart of those who meditate upon Him.
Truth has got a magnetism to attract to Itself all the ego and ego-centric passions of the individual. In this sense viewed, we need not consider Krishna as a deity of the farm-yard in the agricultural estates. The Lord ploughs the hard stupidities in us and prepares the heart-field, weeding out all the poisonous growths of sin, and cultivates therein pure Bliss which is of the nature of Reality.
(58) Lohitaakshah -Red-eyed. Very often we find descriptions in the Puranas, where the Lord is explained as having eyes like the red-lotus ( Hibiscus). Generally the ruddy eyes represent anger and the incarnations are taken for the purpose of destroying the evil and so His anger is towards the evil-minded materialists who live ignoring the higher values of life.
(59) Pratardanah -The root Tarda means "destruction" and with the prefix Pra the root (Pra-tarda) means "supreme destruction". One who does this total destruction (Pratardanah) is the Lord in the form of Rudra at the time of the great dissolution (Pralaya).
(60) Prabhootah -The term means 'born full' or 'ever-full'. He is ever-full and perfect in His Essential Nature, as the Transcendental Reality, or even when He manifests in the form of His various incarnations. Especially in His chief and glorious incarnation as Lord Krishna, He proved Himself to be ever full with His Omnipotency and Omnisciency.
(61) Trikakubdhaama -One who is the very foundation or support (Dhaama) of the three quarters (Kakubh). We find this is generally commented upon and described as "all quarters, in the three realms above, below and middle." Viewing this from the platform of Vedanta, He must be considered by us as the three Planes-of-Consciousness-the waking (Jaagrat), the dream (Svapna) and the deep-sleep (Sushupti) conditions. The fourth Plane-of-Consciousness (Tureeya) is indeed the Substratum for all the other three planes.
(62) Pavitram -One who gives purity to the heart. To the seekers who are meditating upon Him, He gives inner purity, and hence He is known as Pavitram.
Or, the term Pavi means the weapon vajra (thunderbolt). One who saves his devotees from the thunderbolt of Indra is Pavitram. The thunderbolt is described as an instrument in cross bones-made out of the bone of sage Dadheechi. Indra is the Lord of the Indriyas. In Vedanta Indra signifies the mind. Mind's cross purposes, confusions, intellectual compromises and the consequent self cancellation of our mental powers (Sankalpa-Vikalpa) can be the great thunderbolt of the mind with which Indra (mind) can destroy in no time all the acquired tapas of the saadhaka.
Deep devotion, ardent meditation and firm faith in the Lord Vishnu save the saadhaka from all such mental storm and, therefore, the Lord acquires the significant name Pavitram.
(63) ParamMangalam -Mangalam is that which not only removes the dark pains of evil, but brings the bright joys of merit. Param Mangalam is Supreme Mangalam and It can be none other than He, by whose mere remembrance all inauspiciousness gets lifted up and all Auspiciousness comes to flood our hearts. The Upanishad declares: "Ma, That Brahman-who removes all inauspiciousness in man an( gives man all auspiciousness, by a mere remembrance of Him -give us all auspiciousness.
(64) Eesaanah -'The Controller of all the five Great Elements". When this term is used, Eesvara becomes the Administrator of His own Law in the phenomenal world of plurality. The executive function of His Infinite Will, when manifested through Him, the Lord, Eesvara, is said to function as Eesaanah. Or, the term can also mean One who is the Supreme Eesvara-the Paramesvara.
(65) Praanadah -One who gives (Dadaati) the Pnwnas to all. The term Praanas used in philosophy indicates "all manifestations of Life in a living body''. The Source of Life from which all dynamic activities in the living organisms of the world flow out, meaning, That from which all activities emerge out is Praanadah. Taittireeya Upanishad (2-7) exclaims: "Who could then live, who could breath" if He be not everywhere."
(66) Praanah -That which sustains is Praana and that which has got Praana functioning in it is called a Praanee. Since the Lord is termed as this very same Praana, it means by its suggestion that He is One who ever lives. The Immortal and the Eternal is Praanah.
The term can also mean that which gives Life-impulse even to the air; the capacity to sustain life in the atmosphere flows from Him alone. In the Kenopanishad we read the Supreme 'Defined' as the "Praana of Praanas" (Praanasya Praanah).
(67) Jyeshthah - Older than all. The Infinite is That which was even before the very concept of space (Aakaasa) came into existence. The term is the superlative degree of the Aged. In short, the import of this term is the same as the more familiar term used in our sastras, the Ancient (Sanaatanah).
(68) Sreshthah -The most Glorious One: Here again it is the superlative degree of glorious, Sreyah.
(69) Prajaapatih -The Lord (Pati) of all living creatures(Prajaah). The term Prajas means 'Children'. Therefore Prajaapati means the Great Father, to whom all beings in the living kingdom are His own children. In this sense, the term connotes One, who, as the Creator, creates all creatures.
(70)
-One who dwells in the womb (garbha) of the world (Hiranya). The Upanishad declares: "All these are in-dwelt by the Lord." The "Golden Universe" is an idiom in Sanskrit where 'gold' means "objects of fulfilment and joy' One who dwells in them all is Hiranya garbhah. The term can also mean as He who, having become first the Creator, has come to be considered as the womb of all objects.
(71) Bhoogarbhah -One who is the very womb of the world (Bhooh). The One from whom the world has emerged out. In the Cosmic Form of the Lord, this world occupies an insignificant though sacred portion, just as the fetus in the womb, constantly and lovingly nurtured and nourished by the very Essence in the mother. Or, Bhooh the earth: the divine consort of Hari: Garbha - Protector.
(72) Maadhavah -The Lord of Maayaa, Spouse of Mahaalakshmee. Or, the term can signify the One who is ultimately experienced through a diligent practice of "madhu-technique": the very famous Madhu Vidyaa of the Chandogya Upanishad. The term Maadhavah can also mean One who is the Silent (Mauni); who is ever the Non-interfering Observer, the Silent Witness of the physical, mental and intellectual activities in the realm of change. To put it in one word. He is the One whom the seeker experiences when he has stilled his mind which has been purified by Yoga practices.
(73) Madhusoodanah -One who destroyed the great demon Madhu. The story of Vishnu destroying these two demons, Madhu and Kaitabha, is a story of secret suggestions in Mahabharata. Madhu also means in Veda (Madhu = honey) as the fruits of actions (Karma-phala). Actions leave impressions and these sensuous Vaasanaas are destroyed by meditations on the Reality and so the Supreme gathers to Itself the name Madhusoodanah: "the Destroyer of Vaasanaas."
(74) Eesvarah -One who is Omnipotent, and so has all powers in Him to the full. The manifested powers of Life express themselves in every intelligent man as the power of action in the body (Krivaa Shakti). The power of desire in the mind (lcchaa Shakti) and the power of knowledge in the intellect (Jnaana Sakti). All these three powers are manifestations of Him, and since He is the One everywhere. He is the total mighty power-the Great Vishnu.
(75) Vikramee -One full ofprowess ( Vikrama), courage, daring. Or, it can be One who has "Special foot steps". This term commemorates how the Lord, as Vamana, measured with His tiny three steps all the three worlds.
(76) Dhanvee -Lord Vishnu's Divine Bow is called 'Saarnga' and it is described as the mightiest among the weapons. One who is having this Mighty Bow at all times is Dhanvee. It can also remind us of His incarnation as Sree Ramachandraji, when, in order to protect the world from the mighty Raakshasas of Lanka, He had to dedicate a substantial part of His life almost constantly wielding his bow: hence Sri Rama came to be known as Dhanushpaani; in His attitude of protection He is known as Kodandaraama. Thus, the term Dhanvee, the Wielder of the bow, is quite appropriate for Vishnu. "I am Sri Rama among the Wielders of the bow" -Geeta Ch. 10, St. 31.
(77) Medhaavee -Supremely intelligent; One who is capable of understanding everything. One who has the capacity to comprehend intellectually all that is happening around is called Medhaavee. Since Consciousness is the One Light in all living creatures, which illumines all intellects, and since Vishnu is this Infinite Consciousness, He is the One Knower, knowing all things, at all times, at once. Hence Saraswati, the Goddess of Learning and Knowledge is described as the very tongue of Vishnu.
(78) Vikramah -While describing the term Vikramee (75) we had already explained the meaning contents of Vikrama, and thus Vikrdma is an appellation that had come to Vishnu as a result of His Supernatural Act of measuring the universe with three steps.
Also, Vi means the "king-of-birds", the white-necked eagle; Krama means steps and, therefore, 'movement or travel". In this sense Vikrama can mean: "One who rides on the white eagle (mind) is Vishnu"-who is described as having Garuda for His vehicle (Vaahanam).
(79) Kramah -He who is All-Pervading is Kramah. Because of His All-Pervasiveness, the Infinite is called as Vishnu. That which goes beyond the frontiers of the known is the Supreme, and, therefore, in the description of Him, who has manifested as the Cosmos, we have in Purushasookta an indication that He not only pervades all that is known but "extends even beyond by ten digits" (Atyatishthat Dasaangulam).
(80) Anuttamah -One who is 'incomparably Great' in glory-Anuttamah. In the Sanskrit construction of the word, it means something more than what we have said; it means: 'He is one, beyond whom there exists none who is greater than He. In Gita (Xl-43) we read: "For Thy equal exists not, whence another superior to Thee?" In Sri Narayana Upanishad (12) we again read, "There is nothing above or below, equal to Him".
(81) Duraadharshah -One who cannot be attacked, stormed or beleaguered successfully. In short, He is All-Powerful. In the Puranas, we find Daityas and Asuras and others, mighty and powerful ones, become themselves helpless victims of His Power and come under His sway. To one who has realized the Infinite, the lower nature of the mind (Daityas) and the enchantments of the senses (Raakshasas), are all helpless to overwhelm Him. "Rasopyasya Param Drishtvaa Nivartate" Geeta Ch. 2, St. 59.
(82) Kritajnah -He who knows all that is done by all: the One Knower who knows all physical activities, all emotional feelings, and all intellectual thoughts and motives. He illumines them all, in all, at all times. Hence He is called Kritajna Vishnu is the One who knows clearly the exact depth of sincerity, the true ardency of devotion, the real amount of purity in the bosom of all his devotees, and, accordingly, brings ioy and bliss to their hearts.
(83) Kritih -The- One, who is the very dynamism behind all activities. He is the Inevitability behind the result of actions. He is called Kritih because it is He who visits to bless the good and to punish the evil; in short; He is the One who rewards all our actions.
(84) Aatmavaan - One who is the Self in all beings. In the Chandogya Upanishad (7.24.1) when the disciple asks, "Where does the Lord, the Infinite, stand established?" the Sruti answers, "In Its own glory established ever is the Self"-(Sve Mahimni Pratishthitah).
(85) Suresah -The denizens of the Heavens are called in the Puranas as Suras Eesa means the Lord; Suresa, therefore, indicates the God of gods, the Lord of the Suras. The gods are called as Suras because they are capable of blessing their devotees with a fulfillment of their desires. Therefore, Suresah means One who is the best among those who fulfill all the demands of their devotees (Suras). In short. He is the One who gives the Supreme State of Beatitude and the consequent total liberation from all desires of the ego.
(86) Saranam --The Refuge for all who are suffering from the thraldom of imperfection in life. According to the Sanskrit Lexicon (Amarakosa), the term Saranam means 'Protector' and also 'home'. Since the Lord is the Ultimate Goal, Saranam, He is also the "Destination", the 'Harbour'. The One who realizes Him comes to live in Him.
He is the Home to which the Prodigal Son (Jeeva) ultimately returns. Not only for the Men of Realization is He the Home, but for all creatures, movables and immovables. He is the Home, to which they all disappear to rest and to revive during Pralaya (Sleep).
(87) Sarma -One who is Himself the Infinite Bliss. Transcending the mind lie the shores of Bliss, beyond the waters of agitations. The Infinite is described in our Upanishads as the "Sacchidaananda", ever of the same nature---' Saantam Sivarn Sundaram.
(88) Visvaretaah -Retas means seed'; the term connotes that He is the seed from which the tree of life has sprung forth. He who is the very cause for the entire play of experience in .the world of pluralistic objects (Sarva" Prapancha-Kaaranabhootah) is called Visvaretaah.
(89) Prajaabhavah -He from whom all living creatures (Prajaa) spring forth (Bhava) is known as Prajaa" bhavah.
(90) Ahah -Ahan has got two meanings: the 24-hour-day or the 12-hour day-time. He is of the nature of 'day-time' means "He is the One, ever effulgent and bright"; as bright as the daylight that illumines all objects around. In case we accept the other meaning, "the 24-hour-day", then, a day being a unit of time, the term Ahan can also mean, "One who is of the nature of Time itself". Also He is one who does not (a) ever destroy (han) the devotees who have surrendered themselves to Him.
(91) Samvatsarah -One who is of the nature of year-meaning One who is the Lord of Time; He, from whom the very 'concept of Time' rises.
(92) Vyaalah -One who is unapproachable. "Vyaola" also means 'Serpent'; to those who have no devotion or understanding, God or Truth is as horrible and terrible as a 'serpent'. Moreover, it is so difficult to grasp in our understanding that It is like a serpent: ever eluding, always slippery.
(93) Pratyayah - One whose very nature is Knowledge. That the Supreme is Knowledge Absolute is very well known. It is in the light of Consciousness that all 'knowledges' are possible. 'Knowledge of a thing' is the Awareness of its nature. Awareness is Knowledge. Since the Supreme is the One Awareness everywhere, all 'Knowledges' spring from the Self. Hence, He is called "the Pure Knowledge". "Consciousness is Brahman" is one of the Mahaavaakyas.
(94) Sarvadarsanah - This term, "All-seeing" is very appropriate inasmuch as the Supreme Consciousness has been defined and indicated in the Kenopanishad as, "That which the eyes cannot see, but because of which the eyes see." It is the Seer in the eyes, the Hearer in the ears, the Speaker, the Feeler and the Thinker." And since this Principle of Consciousness is One everywhere, as expressed through the equipments, It is indeed the One Seer in all 'seeing', by everyone, everywhere. The Gita indicates Him as "One who has eyes and heads every- where"
(95) Ajah -Unborn. Birth implies a modification; birth cannot be without the death of its previous condition. Since the Eternal and the Infinite, is ever Changeless there can be in It neither birth nor death. That which is born must necessarily die: (Geeta Ch. 2, St. 27) and so, that which is unborn should be deathless (Arnritah).
Rig Veda (1-81-5): "He was neither born nor is He going to be born."
(96) Sarvesvarah -God of all gods or the Supreme Controller of all. In a sense it means the Almighty, the All-powerful. "He is the Lord of all," says Brihad Upanishad (6-4-2).
(97) Siddhah -One who has achieved all that has to be achieved, as He Himself is the Final Goal for all. Or the term can also mean "the most famous"
(98) Siddhih - He who is available for recognition (Siddha) everywhere at all points in His nature as Pure Consciousness. Again, Siddhi also means the 'fruit of action', and in the context here this would mean, "He who gives the Infinite fruit of Kaivalya, Moksha." All other karmas can acquire for us only relative joys of the heavens, but in realizing the Self the seeker gains an Infinite State from which there is no return', so describes Geeta.
(99) Sarvaadih - One who is the very beginning (Aadi) of all; One who was in existence earlier than everything else. Even before the effects arise, the Cause. The Infinite which was before creation and from which the created beings had emerged out, as an effect, is naturally the Primary Cause (Moola-Kaarana).
(100) Achyutah -Chyutah Fallen; Achyutah: One who has never fallen: the Ever-Pure Reality which is never fallen into the mis-conceptions of Samsar: the Pure Knowledge in which ignorance has never come to pollute Its purity. Lord Himself says in Bhagavata, "I have never ever before fallen from my Real Nature; therefore, I am Achyutah".
(101) Vrishaakapih: There is a lot of controversy among pundits upon the exact meaning of this term. But all controversies become meaningless when we read Bhagavan’s own words, “Since Kapi has a meaning the ‘boar’ and since ‘vrisha’ has the meaning of ‘Dharma’ the great Kasyapa Prajapati says I am Vrishaakapih”.
In Sanskrit the term Kapi has a meaning: 'that which saves one from drowning'. Lord in the form of the Great Boar, (Varaaha) in that incarnation, had lifted the world from the waters at the end of the deluge; the term vrisha means 'Dharma'. One who thus lifts the world drowned in Adharma to the sunny fields of Dharma is vrishaakapih.
(102) Ameyaatmaa — One who has His manifestations (Aatmaa) in Infinite varieties, almost unaccountable (Ameya). The Viraat Purusha of the Form of All-Lord of the Cosmic Form is suggested here. As all forms have risen from Him, exist in Him, and dissolve into Him alone, all forms are His own different forms.
(103) Sarva-yoga-vinissritah —Yoga is from Yuj 'to join'; 'to attach'. One who is totally free (vinissritah) from all contacts or attachments. Attachment to a thing is possible only when the object-of-attachment is other than the subject. In the One Infinite Reality there cannot be any attachment with anything, mainly because there is nothing here that is not the Infinite Itself. The Infinite is a Mass of Love; there is no attachment in It; for, attachment is Love with possessiveness and desire for gratification. 'This Purusha is, indeed, unattached’, roars Brihad Upanishad. Lastly, the term, Sarva-Yoga-Vinissritah can also mean that He is beyond the reach of the various systems of Yogas taught in the Sastras. These systems are to quieten the mind, to end the misapprehensions-of-Truth, to annihilate the Maayaa. What is there left over in the seeker's bosom is the Self—the Great Vishnu.
(104) Vasuh - The One who is the very support of all elements, and the One who Himself is the very Essence of the elements. This is something like the dream made up of our own mind; and the very same dream-world plays itself out, all the time sustained in the very same mind. Similarly, the Self indwells all and all dwell in the Self. In the Geeta we are told by the Lord, "I am among the Vasus the Paavakah. Therefore, the Self exists like air—allowing everything to remain in it and sustaining everything by it.
(105) Vasumanuah — One who has a mind which is Supremely Pure; meaning a mind that has none of the sins of passions and pains; none of the storms of desires and jealousies; none of the quakes of likes and dislikes.
(106) Satyah - He is the Real. The term Satyam used in philosophy has a special connotation. That which remains the same in all the three periods of time is called Satyam. That which seemingly exists, but which never was nor shall ever be, is considered as a false delusion, A-satya.He ho remains the same, before the creation, during the existence and even after the dissolution, is the Infinite Truth, Satyah. The Taittireeya Upanishad thunders that the Eternal Truth is "Truth, Knowledge, Bliss": "Satyam, Jnaanam, Anantam Brahma" Taittireeya Upanishad.
We may here mention a couple of other meanings that are generally given to this term "The best among good people is Satyam. Again, the word Satyam is made up of three sounds — Sat-ti-yam — and, herein, according to the Upanishad itself, "Sat means praana, ti means food. Yam means sun therefore, Satyam is the Law which orders the food to sustain the praana when both are blessed by the sources of all gross energies in the cosmos, the Sun.
(107) Samaatmaa — He who is equally in all. In Kathopanishad we read the declaration of Lord Death to Nachiketas how the same Truth has come to express itself differently from form to form. To visualize the Paramesvara who levels equally in all, among the perishables and imperishables, is the Vision Divine. Kauseshika Upanishad (3-9) says, "One should understand that the Self is the same-in-all". In the Geeta also is the declaration "I am the Seer in all the fields-of-experiences everywhere".
(108) Sammitah - The term Sammatam means 'acceptable". The One Truth, which has been proved and accepted by the Rishis in the Upanishads through subtle logic and philosophical reasoning, is called Sammatah. This is the most direct and very appealing meaning. But there are some who would interpret this portion of the Thousand Names of Lord Vishnu by combining Samaatmaa (107) and Sammitah (108) to form together a single ‘Name’ wherein the compound word would read Samaatma-asammitah. Here the term Asammitah then would come to mean "One who is incomparable. Inimitable (Atulya) who has none to equal Him".
(109) Samah - Equal; the same. Truth remains the same. One Infinite Reality plays the game of plurality. As has been said in the Kathopanishad, "The One Principle of Fire having entered this world burns itself out differently according to the equipments upon which it is manifested", so the One Truth manifests as the many Jeevas. Hence He is called the Samah. Also it can mean as One who is ever united, with (Sa) Lakshmi (Maa).
(110) Amoghah - Moghah means "useless fellow" (Nishphalah), "a disappointing power". Amogha is the opposite of it: "Ever Useful", "Ever the Ful-filler" of all the wishes and demands of His devotees. Chandogya Upanishad declares: "Truthful is His wish, and Truth is His resolve".
(Ill) Pundareekaakshah - One who can be contacted and fully experienced in the Heart Space (Pundareekam). In the Narayana Upanishad (10) we find the same term employed: "In the core of the body, in the Heart Space, dwells the Supreme." In the 'Heart', the meditator can experience the Reality more readily and very clearly, and so the All Pervading Reality is described as "dwelling in the Heart-cave".
(112) Vrishakarmaa — Vrisha means Dharma. One whose every activity is righteous and who acts only to establish righteousness. "For the sake of establishing Dharma, I am born in every age", says Lord.
(113) Vrishaakritih - One who is of the form (Aakriti) of Dharma (Vrisha). It is not only that His actions are righteous but He is Himself Righteousness. It can also mean as One who takes different forms during His Divine Incarnations—all for maintaining the Rule of Dharma in the world.
(114) Rudrah — One who makes all people weep. At the time of death or during the total dissolution, the One who makes all weep is Rudrah. From a devotee's standpoint the same term is interpreted as the One who liquidated all sorrows is Rudrah. Bhagavan declares Himself to be "Among the Rudras, I am Sankara". According to the Vedic terminology there are II Rudras; this eleventh "Rudra" is called as Sankara: Sam-karoti-iti = Sankarah — "One who blesses all with Auspiciousness (Sam)."
(115) Bahusiraah - One who has many heads. The Purushasooktam of the Rig Veda describes the Cosmic Form of the Lord with a narration, "The Purusha of thousand heads, thousand eyes and thousand feet......"" In Geeta a similar description of the Universal Form of the Lord is found in Chapter XI. Again in the Geeta Chapter XIII when the Lord was describing the Infinite Goal to be known (Jneyam), He describes It as "Everywhere legs, everywhere hands, everywhere eyes, everywhere His face".
Thus, He whose personal manifestations constitute the universe is known as "One who has many heads."
(116) Babhruh — One who rules over the worlds. "Like a King"— Atmabodham gives this analogy. He in whose presence all the instruments of perception, feeling and knowing continue their co-ordinated activity is the Self, the Atman, who is Great Lord Vishnu.
(117) Visvayonih — One who is the Total Cause from which alone the entire world of experiences (visvam) has emerged out. The womb (yoni) from which thoughts and actions had risen is called Visvayonih.
(118) Suchisravaah — One who has beautiful and efficient ears (Sravas): "Everywhere are His ears" meaning thereby He is the Hearer in all ears. The term Sravas not only means ears, but it also means "names" — so Suchisravas can mean 'One who has Divine and Sacred names'. Thus, the devotee can invoke Him with thousands of His names when He can readily listen in and rightly understand the exact purity and the real depth of devotion in the devotee. Also the term can be used to indicate the One whose "names" are worthy of being heard by seekers.
(119) Arnritah — One who is Immortal and Immutable. Mritam == dead. The Infinite is Ajarah, Amarah and Avyayah. It can also mean as One who is of the nature of Nectar (Arnritam) —a sure cure for those who are suffering from malady of ignorance. Arnritah also means Moksha', and thus it is indicated. He is the ever-liberated—the Pure State of Being.
(120) Saasvata-sthaanuh — One who is both permanent (Saasvatah) and irremovable (Sthaanuh). He is the One who remains Changeless, because Immortal; who remains the same in all periods of time, because permanent (Saasvatah); and who remains changeless in His nature of Consciousness (Sthaanuh). This is a single term (Saasvata-sthaanuh) and, therefore, we must add the meanings together — Permanent and Changeless; Permanently Changeless Factor in life is Vishnu.
(121) Vararohah — He who is the most Glorious (Vara) Destination (Aaroha). The Seat of the Self is the most Glorious because the imperfections of the world of atter (Prakriti) are not there in the Spirit (Purusha). Liberation from the thraldom of matter is the arrival of the Infinitude of the Self. "He never returns", thunders the Chandogya Upanishad (8-15-1) three times in one and the same breath, assuring us that one who has reached the Seat of Vishnu, beyond the frontiers of the intellect, there is for him no more any return ever into the ego-centric life of tensions of sorrows.
(122) Mahaatapaah —One of great Tapas. Th term tapas in Sanskrit has three meanings: 'Knowledge’ (Jnana), 'Prosperity' (Aisvarya) and also 'Might' (Prataapa). It is in the presence of Consciousness that we come to know all our experiences. 'Conscious of' a thing or an idea is the 'Knowledge of' the thing ot the idea. That about which I am not conscious of, I have really no knowledge of it. All knowledges, of a bosoms, in all living creatures, everywhere, at all times, cannc be without the play of Consciousness upon the respective objects of knowledge, and hence this Consciousness is indicated in the Upanishads as Pure Knowledge, in the light c which alone all knowledge are possible. All achievements an prosperity (Aisvarya), all might and power of the living creatures can express themselves through them only when they ai alive. This great truth is Maha Vishnu. "Whose Tapas is of the nature of Knowledge".
(123) Sarvagah — "He who has gone everywhere", meaning "One who pervades everything". The cause pervades its effect: gold in all ornaments; ocean in all waves; cotton in all cloth. The Infinite Consciousness Itself expresses as both world-of-matter (Kshetra) and the Knower-of-the-field (Kshet-rajna). Vishnu, the Infinite is beyond these two (Uttamah Purushah) in whom there is no expression of matter and, therefore, no 'Knower'-hood. He is the All-Pervading Self, Maha Vishnu.
(124) Sarvavid-bhaanuh — One who is All Knowing (Sarvavit) and Effulgent. The Light of Consciousness is the "Light that illumines all lights" audit is again Consciousness that "illumines even darkness". In the Mundaka Upanishad (4.10) also we read: ‘By its Light alone it illumines all other experiences." Sarvavit-Bhaanuh is one term: meaning that all Knowing Effulgent Consciousness.
(125) Viskvaksenah - He, while facing whom, even the mighty army of the gods retreat and scatter away, is called as Vishvaksenah. He is the Almighty and All-Powerful, and no army can stand against Him.
(126) Janaardanah — The term Ardayati is a verb meaning both 'giving sorrow' or 'giving joy’ Thus, One who gives sorrow and disaster to the vicious, and who blesses with joy and peace to the good people is called Janaardanah.
(127) Vedah — The term Veda comes from the root vid: 'to know’. Since Veda gives knowledge, the Lord is termed as Vedas in the sense, that He is the One who gives the Knowledge of the Reality, because He is the very Reality. In Mahabharata, Vyasa says: "Krishna alone is All-vedas, All-sciences, All-techniques and All-dedicated Actions" In the Bhagavad Geeta (Ch. 10, St. 2) Lord says: "Out of mere compassion for them, I, abiding in their Self, destroy the darkness born of ignorance, by the luminous lamp of wisdom".
(128) Vedavit — 'One who knows the veda’ The Lord alone is the One Experience without which the Vedas cannot be fully realized. The surest and the most exhaustive commentary of the Vedas is to be found only in a stilled mind, which is in communion with Vishnu, the Supreme Reality. Geeta (Ch. 15, St. 15) says, "I am the author of the Vedanta, as well as the Knower of the Vedas".
(129) Avyangah — He who has no imperfections (Vyanga) anywhere in him—The All-Perfect. The term Vyanga also means person, and so Avyanga means One who cannot be known by anyone in any 'personal-form'. Geeta plainly says "This great Reality is Imperceptible, Unthinkable, without any modifications".
(130) Vedaangah — One whose very limbs are the Vedas. In Kenopanishad in the closing stanzas, the teacher insists that all knowledges are Its limbs.
(131) Vedavit — 'One who contemplates upon the Veda is Vedavit': Mere word meaning cannot give us the true concept of the subtle them discussed in the Vedas. Continuous reflection upon their declarations alone can reach us to the peaks of their imports, In the Geeta, Bhagavan Himself declares that He is not only the very Revealer of Vedas but He is at once the Knower of the Veda— -Geeta Ch. 15, St. 15.
It is absolutely necessary that the student of the Veda should try to understand the meaning of their declaration. To repeat the mantras parrot-like is not of any consequence 'He who has studied the Vedas but has not understood the meaning, but carries a load, as the 'road-rest' on the roadside.' Thus He who constantly reflects upon the Veda, and naturally lives upto it, is the Great Lord.
(132) Kavih —The term Kavi in the Vedas mean the 'Seer'. One who experiences something more than the ordinary is called a Kavi. In the Isavasy Upanishad we read: 'The Seer, the Intelligent.' In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad we read: "There is no Seer except Him."
In the Glory of the Lord, He confesses, in the Geeta "among the Poets, I am Usanas, Sukra-Aachaarya"
(133) Lokaadhyakshah - One who presides over all fields of experiences — all lokas. President is one who is responsible for the conduct of the assembly; he guides the discussion in a disciplined manner, and ultimately at the end of it all, he dissolves the meeting. All through the discussions he never interferes with the freedom of speech and action of the members, if they act within the agenda of the day. Similarly, the Lord presides over all the fields of activities, never interfering with the freedom of the individuals to act. 'The Supreme Purusha in this body is also called the spectator, the permitter, the supporter, the enjoyer, the great Lord, and the Supreme Self." From the Puranic standpoint the Lord in His Vaamana manifestation was installed as the king of the three worlds and, therefore, this name, say the Pauraanikas.
(134) Suraadhyakshah -The President of the Heavens to whom the Devas run for protection when they are threatened by their constant enemies — the Daityas and the Asuras. When in the Heaven of our bosom, the thought-angels are threatened by the negative tendencies and criminal purposes, He to whom the good in us surrender totally for sure protection and safety is Vishnu, the President within the bosom.
(135) Dharmaadhyakshah -Presiding over the activities of the living organisms. Consciousness revels, illumining both the good and the evil therein. The One Sacred factor that constantly thus illumines all the nature and functions (Dharma) of the body, mind and intellect is the Dharmaa dhyakshah. Lord Vishnu.
(136) Kritaakritah -Kritam = that which is done == that which is manifested or created. Akritam, therefore, is that which has not manifested or become. The former (Kritam) indicates all the "effects" manifested out of the Creator's activities, and the latter (Akritam) is the "cause" from which no manifestation has yet emerged — it is still unmanifest. The Self, the Atman, is the 'Post' — in the ghost-in-the-post example — upon which the cause and the effect, the unmanifest and the manifest, like the "ghost" apparently come to play (Kritam == Vyaktam, A-Kritam = A-Vyaktam).
(137) Chaturaatmaa — The Self is described as four-fold when we consider the Atman as the Glory (Vibhooti) of the Self. Thus, the Essential factors, with which alone the endless play of creation, sustenance and destruction can continue, are the glories of the Self (Aatma-Vibhooti). In Vishnu Purana, four distinct vibhooties of the Lord — when He functions as the creator, sustainer and destroyer — are found enumerated. From the standpoint of a Vedantic student, since in the Non-dual Reality there cannot be anything other than Itself, all the plays of the gross, the subtle and causal bodies, in the microcosm and in the macrocosm, are the glories (vibhooties) of the One Self. In the Absolute, in the Eternal, all these are transcended; these—the waker, dreamer, deep-sleeper, the Tureeya —are all Its Glories. The Possessor of these Glories is the One that transcends even "Tureeya"; He is called as the Twreeyaateetah.
(138) Chaturvyoohah — One who manifests into the four mighty powers (Vyooha). The Truth, that plays thus Himself in these four levels having apparently created the world of experiences, is Vishnu, the AII-Pervadmg. According to the Vaishnava literature, for the purpose of creation, Maha Vishnu Himself became four mighty powers (Vyooha) and they were called Vaasudeva, Samkarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. One who has Himself these four mighty powers, necessary for the conduct of plurality, is the Great Self, Maha Vishnu.
(139) Chatur-Damshtrah - The canine teeth fully developed in the upper and the lower rows, as in the case of carnivorous animals, are called in Sanskrit as Damstraa. This is reminiscent of the Powerful Damshtroa of the Loni when He took the form of Nara-Simha to protect Prahlaada.
Also in the Puranas we find that the Great white Elephant of Indra, 'Airaavata,’ has four tusks — He whose glory is the four-tusked Airoavata is Maha-Vishnu. To the student of the Upanishad, it is indeed very clear that these four ‘tusks" or 'teeth’ are nothing other than the four paadas which Mandukya thunders "hatushpaada’. The manifestation of the Might and Glory of the Supreme are the play of the waking, dream and deep-sleep conditions. With reference to these three, transcending them all, is the fourth plane-of-consciousness the Spring board for all these three. He, whose Glory are all these four grinding, crushing, fearful experiences of duality, is the One Non-dual Self, the Great Maha Vishnu.
(140) Chaturbhujah — "One who has four hands"· It is famous that Maha Vishnu has four hands and they carry the Conch, the Discus, the Mace, and the Lotus. According to the Puranas, these four are used by the Lord in maintaining Dharma among mankind. The 'Conch calls man to the righteous path that directly leads to Peace and Perfection, the Divine Vishnupada. Very many of us in the enchantment of the immediate sense-joys refuse to listen to the small inner voice of conscience, the sound of the PaanchaJanya'conch, and so He wields the ‘Mace' and we come to suffer small calamities and tragic jerks in our smooth existence — communal, social or national. If still the individual is not listening to the call of the 'Conch’, the wheel-of-time, Chakra annihilates the entire. The call and the punishment are all only to take man towards his Ultimate Goal, represented by the "Lotus" in His hand.
Subjectively Vishnu is the Self within, who manifests as the four-armed 'subtle-body' to serve as the Eesa of the gross physical structure, in all its actions and protect it with existence. The "Subtle-body" as the inner-equipment (Antah'Karana) functions as four mighty powers—mind, intellect, chit and ego. Chit is the 'Lotus', intellect is the Conch, ego is the 'Mace’ and mind is the 'Discus'. All these four are wielded by the One Infinite Blue-bodied Narayana, clothed in His 'yellow garb', manifesting to maintain and sustain the world of good and evil. Since the Self functions thus in a four-fold pattern, Vishnu has the appellation, "the four-armed Lord."
(141) Bhraajishnuh — Self-Effulgent Consciousness illumines everything; and it is not borrowing Its Light from any other source. "It is the Light of lights that illumines even darkness"—(Geeta Ch. 13, St. 18). And the Upanishad is equally vehement and declares: "There the sun has no light nor the stars nor these lightning; how little then can this fire! By its Light alone all these are illumined.
(142) Bhojanam -The immediate meaning of the term is food, viz. eatables. In philosophy it has a wider implication and the term "food" cannotes the entire field-of-objects experienced or enjoyed by the sense-organs. The world-of-objects projected by the sense-organs, the inner psychological play and this world-of-matter constituting the field-of-plurality, all together is comprehended by the term Maayaa. Thus orthodox commentators reduce this term 'Bhojanam' to the contents and functions of Maayaa. Taittirdeya Upanishad (2-7) says: "He is indeed the Essence (Rasa)”.
(143) Bhoktaa - The "Experiencer". Not only the world-of-objects is essentially nothing but the Spirit, Lord Vishnu, but even the very instruments-of-experiences and their ultimate joys and sorrows, are all illumined for us by the Lord of-Lakshmi. The Pure Self, expressing through the gross, the subtle and the causal bodies, becomes the waker, dreamer and deep-sleeper, experiencing all happenings, good and bad, as the individuality in that living person. Consciousness, Purusha, identifying with and functioning through matter (Prakriti) comes to experience the endless modifications that are born out of Prakriti. The Self in Its Infinite nature is action less and yet in Maayaa seems to function and becomes the Enjoyer or Sufferer of the actions of matter.
(144) Sahishnuh - One who is capable of patiently suffering, in his perfect detachment, all that is happening around, is a sahishnuh. Whatever happens to the reflections of the Sun, the Sun in the cosmos is unaffected by them, and with reference to his reflections we can call him a Sahishnuh; the Sun is a mere "witness" of his own endless reflections.
The term has also got two more meanings in Sanskrit as Forgiver' or 'Conqueror'. Vishnu is one who forgives us readily all our trespasses, and conquers for us all the inimical forces in our inner personality.
(145) Jagadaadijah — One who had born (Jah) in the very beginning (aadi) of the world (jagat) is called Jagadaadijah. At the time of dissolution (Pralaya) when the entire gross and subtle bodies go to lie absorbed in the Total Causal-body, the world, in Pralaya, lies merged in Eesvara. Before the gross world-of-plurality emerges out there should be a condition of subtle manifestation of it in the form of thoughts. Thoughts constitute the mind-intellect; when the Infinite functions through this Total Mind-intellect, It is called as Hiranva garbha — the womb of all objects, it is from the Hiranyagarbha'sta-te, the manifestation of the gross world emerges out, when the Lord comes to play as the Viraat Aatmaa. Maha Vishnu is the One who was born before the world of gross bodies, therefore, it is indicated here that He is the "Womb-of-all-objects" in the world, the Hiranyagarbha—the very Creator.
(146) Anaghah — Agham means sin (Poapa), impurities (mala); and therefore, 'Anaghah means One who has no imperfections and who is not affected by the good and bad Vaasanaas left over in the personality as a result of the wilful actions. He is the Un-contaminated (Aliptah). The Light of Consciousness is the Illuminator of the mind, and so the peace of virtueor the agitations of the sin cannot affect the Illuminator — the Illuminator being always different from the illuminated. Chandogya Upanishad (8-1-5) says: "He is free from Sin".
(147) Vijayah - "The Victorious". One who realizes the Self can thereafter stand apart from the thralldom of matter. Victorious over the tyrannies of the flesh, feelings or facts. Thus, the Seat of Self is the Seat of Victory over matter. The Peace and harmony of the Self can never be assailed by the noisy hordes of the world of plurality. Vijay is the name also of Arjuna and the Lord Himself says, "Among the Pandavas, I am Arjuna" - Geeta Ch. 10, St. 37.
(148) Jetaa - "Ever Successful". In all undertakings He alone wins; One who never knows any defeat or failure. Upanishad says: "Truth alone wins, never falsehood"
(149) Visvayonih - It can be interpreted in two ways as (a) He who is the Cause of the universe or (b) He who has the world as His Cause. The former is clear to those who have so far followed the commentary, and to them the latter may be a very confusing statement. From the standpoint of the Puranas, it is logical. The Self has manifested as the various incarnations from time to time because of the condition of the world, and therefore, Visvarn is the cause for His manifestations.
(150) Punarvasuh – One who comes to live again and again in various equipments of living organisms is Punarvasuh
(151) Upendrah - The younger brother of Indra. In His Incarnation as Vaamana, He was born to Aditi, who was the mother of Indra, and hence, the Lord is known as the "Younger brother of Indra". In Sanskrit the prefix upa denotes *Above' in the sense of 'superior to'; therefore, Upendra may also mean "One who is superior to Indra", the king of gods. Such an explanation we find in the Harivarnsa.
Indra, the king of the sense-organs, is the mind and the Consciousness, which is the Self, is the One factor that dynamises the mind. Since life is that which controls even the mind, certainly It is superior to the mind and this Self is the Maha Vishnu.
(152) Vaamanah — Of the ten great incarnations, the fifth one is Vaamana; and the very name indicates 'One who has a small body'. It was in the form of a child (vatuh = A child student in a guntkula)that Vaamana approached the divinely righteous Emperor Mahaabali to beg of him a little land, of the length of his tiny three steps—and the Lord measured in His three steps all the three worlds and thus conquered Mahaabali. He checked (Vamayati) the rising pride of possession in Bali. hence He, in that incarnation as a Vatu, is called Vaamana.
The term Vaamana also means 'worshipful'. "Him, the Dwarf, sitting in the middle of the heart, all gods adore", so we read in the Kathopanishad . However, here the emphasis should be upon the meaning "short statured" because of the contrast it makes with the following name.
(153) Praamsuh - One whose body is vast is called Praamsuh. Vaamana, when He got the promise from the righteous King, and when He started measuring, the Lord took His Cosmic Form, and with each step measured the earth, the interspace, and the heaven. In Harivarnsa there is a beautiful description of the little Vaamana growing into His Total Form. The rate of His expansion is described with reference to two fixed factors the Sun and the Moon. When He took the form, the Sun and the Moon were His eyes; as He measured the earth, they came to His bosom; as He was measuring the space, the Sun was at His navel and as He lifted His feet to measure the Heaven, the Sun and the Moon were just below His knees.
(154) Amoghah - One whose activities are ever a fulfillment of some great purpose. Even insignificant actions, which, ordinarily, people would think are empty and purposeless, are never really so, when they spring from Him. Even when He punishes, it is only for inaugurating a greater evolutionary blessing.
(155) Suchih - One who is spotlessly 'clean', and therefore, Ever-Pure. Impurities in a substance are things other than itself; when dust is on the cloth, the cloth is impure, unclean. Since the Self, the Aatman, is the Non Dual Reality, having nothing other than Itself in It, Ever-pure alone must It always be. And Suchih is One who gives this purity to those who contemplate upon Him constantly.
(156) Oorjitah - -One who has infinite strength and vitality. Wherever, in the organism, we meet with any strength and vitality they are all the strength and vitality of the Self. The Infinite Vishnu is the One All-Pervading Self, and therefore, He is the very spring-head for all strength.
(157) Ateendrah - One who is beyond Indra in knowledge, glory and strength. Since Indra represents the 'mind-intellect' equipment, Aatman, the Self is denoted here as that which transcends the mind.
(158) Samgrahah - One who holds the entire world of beings-and-things together in an indissoluble embrace unto Himself. Just as the hub of a wheel holds the rim unto itself by its endless spokes, so too the Aatman, the Self within, lends Its vitality to every cell in the body and to every thought in the inner-equipments.
In none can anything happen which is not a-glory borrowed from Him. And, the Self, being the same everywhere, in all existence, in both the movables and immovable, gross and subtle — in the manifest as well as in the unmanifest — He certainly is the One who holds the world of phenomena unto Himself in a vast embrace of Love and Oneness.
(159) Sargah — One who has created out of Himself the whole world. It therefore must also connote One, who has the whole created world as His own form, since the creation is His own manifestation as the Subtle and the Gross.
(160) Dhritaatmaa — One who supports Himself by Himself. In the previous epithet Samgrahah, He was shown as the Cohesion of Love in the world of matter and energy, and in Sargah, He, as the One material and efficient cause of creation, was shown as also the very supporter of the manifested world. But who supports Him? He is Dhritaatmaa — He is established in Himself.
(161) Niyamah — The Appointing Authority: It is He, who orders all the mighty forces of nature and prescribes for each the Laws of their conduct, the ways of their behaviour and the methods of their functions. The Sun, Moon, Air, Waters, Death etc. are all appointed and ordered by the Lord.
(162) Yamah -One who is the mighty Power that administers all the forces of Nature under His Law. Everything in nature strictly obeys ever all His Laws.
(163) Vedyah - That which is to be known; in the language of the Geeta, it is Jneyam, That final knowledge, knowing which every-thing becomes known.
All sciences are investigations into Truth. After observing the nature and behaviour of things and beings when the investigator moves ahead seeking the ONE Harmonious Chord of Reality that holds all phenomena in its inescapable love-web, the scientist of Truth—comes to reject first the gross, and soon thereafter the subtle realms, and ultimately even the causal factors, and thus—comes to apprehend this harmony, which he is seeking as the very subjective core of his own Self. This final Goal to be realized, "having known which everything else becomes known," the One Consummate Knowledge to be gained (Vedyah), is the Self, the Great Vishnu.
(164) Vaidyah — The One Supreme Doctor who alone can minister to the world suffering from ego and egocentric misconceptions. One who is a master of all knowledge (Vidyaa) is also termed as Vaidyah.
(165) Sadaa Yogee - To the confused and the deluded to detach themselves from the false vestures-of-matter and to seek their identity with the ETERNAL Self is called Yoga. All attempts in attaining an at-one-ment with the Self is called Yoga. The Goal, the Self, therefore, in the language of the seeker must be Sadaayoga-ever in yoga.
(166) Veerahaa - "He who destroys the mighty heroes". The powerful men of strength and valour when they grow in their audacity to become tyrants, the Lord manifests to destroy such Raakshasas and thus protects the Dharma and the Good.
(167) Maadhavah - Earlier this term was used where we interpreted the term as the "Lord of Lakshmi." Maa means not only "Lakshmi," but she is also "Vidyaa” (Knowledge). The Lord (Dhava) of all Knowledge (Maa) is Maadhava
He who helps introspection and meditation in the seeker is Moadhava. "To become conscious of the existence of a thing" is called the knowledge of the thing. The Atman, the Self is Existence (Sat) and Consciousness (Sphurana) and, therefore. Lord Vishnu, the Self is the source of all knowledge and as such the Master of all Vidyaas: (Maa-dhava). Harivarnsa says: "0 Hari, You are the Lord (Dhava) of Knowledge (Maa), and hence You are called as Maadhava, the Master of Maa."
(168) Madhuh - The term Madhuh familiarly stands for "honey". It is also a term to indicate "nectar." One who generates Nectarine Bliss in the hearts of His devotees is called Madhuh. The spring time in India is called as Madhumaasa since spring is the season of flowers; full of honey for the bees, and joy for man. The month called Madhu (March April) is the Chaitra month which is considered specially auspicious for prayers, and meditation. One who is of the nature of the Maadhavamaasa, the month of Maadhava (April-May) can also be the suggestion in this term. Vaisaakha (April-May) is considered as the most auspicious time of the year for the worship of Vishnu by all Vaishnavites.
(169) Ateendriyah — One who is beyond the sense-organs not only in the sense, that the sense-organs cannot perceive Him as their 'object' but also in the sense that He is other than the sense-organs and their functions. Lending to them, all their very vitality, is His mere presence! He is the very 'subject' in the perceiver, and, therefore, the instruments of perceptions, emotions, and thoughts cannot experience Him: this Source of All-life is Maha Vishnu. Kathopanishad says: "He is soundless, untouched, formless, immutable, so without taste, eternal, smell-less”.
(170) Mahaamaayoh — One who is the Supreme Master of all Maayaa. He is the very Substratum upon which all the plurality springs up and plays their infinite enchantments, constantly basking in the Light of the Supreme Consciousness* Aatman, the Self, is untouched by the play of Maayaa, and yet the MaaXatr-play S sustained only by the exuberant warmth of His Divine presence- The Sun is the Master of all clouds, inasmuch as, in its presence, borrowing its heat, water by its own nature gets evaporated, and the water, vapour again, because of its own nature of a lesser density than the atmospheric air, rises to the higher altitudes and gathers there as clouds. It is, again, the nature of the atmosphere that at higher altitudes it is cooler and the water-vapour so cooled becomes water again, and due to the higher density of water it descends as rain. In this example the Sun can be called as the ccCreGltor)) of all clouds and the "Cause for the rains," and consequently the sun is also the ~Mastell of the Seasons." And yet, the Sun is uncontaminated by all these phenomena that are happening in its presence.
In the same fashion the Infinite Reality, Vishnu, is indicated here as the Great Magician, who has the magic ofMaayaa at His command. Krishna Himself confesses in the Geeta: "Very difficult indeed it is to cross over My Maayaa”
(171) Mahotsaahah — The Great Enthusiast; the Ever-Dynamic Accomplisher. The Powers of creation, of sustenance and of annihilation—in their totality is the world of birth and death that we live in. This wonderful world cannot be sustained without the endless enthusiasm of this Mighty Power. Looking at the ocean, through the waves, we come to recognise the ocean as the "Sleepless Agitator"; similarly, looking at Vishnu, through the ephimeral kaleidoscopic changes in the patterns of life available to us in our experience today, we call Him as the "Dynamic accomplisher" (Mahotsaahah). The term employed here, the Enthusiastic Accomplisher, is indeed one of the most appropriate names for Maha Vishnu.
(172) Mahaabalah - One who has Supreme Strength. He, being Omnipotent, is the Source of all Strength that we see in each individual organism in life. His Vitality reflected in each of us, is our individual strength; naturally He is the Infinitely Strong, Mahaabalah.
(173) Mahaabuddhih — In the previous term we were told He is Omnipotent. Here He is indicated as Omniscient. The Supreme, functioning through the intellect, is the intelligence. The quality and quantity of the intelligence will depend upon the condition of the "intellect” through which the Infinite comes to play. The intelligence in a mathematician, poet or an artist, scientist or politician—all are the different play-patterns of energies invoked from the one Supreme Intelligence, and therefore, Mahavishnu, the Self, is called here as Mahaabuddhih, the Reservoir of all Intelligence.
(174) Mahaaveeryah - One who is the Supreme Essence. "Veerya" is the Essence behind all the creative urges. Since the Divine is the very source, from which alone the dynamism for creation can manifest, the Supreme Divinity is termed here as the Mahaaveerya.
(175) Mahaasaktih - Power here means efficiency. He—whose manifestations are the power-of-action, the power-of-desire and the power-of-knowledge must necessarily be the most powerful, inasmuch as a play of these three powers is the total play of the world.
(176) Mahaadyutih — Of Splendorous Light. Dyuti means 'Glow', Sobhaa. The Pure Consciousness is the illuminator of all, including all other material sources of light in the world—Sun, Moon, stars, fire etc.—but this is not all; He is also the One, who is Himself Self-Effulgent. This is Mahavishnu—the Supreme Self. In the Mundakopanishad Lord is described as the "Light of lights". Brihadaaranyakopanishad declares: "He is Self-effulgent".
(177) Anirdesyavapuh — One whose form is indefinable, indescribable, inexplicable (Anirdesyam). Ordinary things can be defined, described or explained because they come with our experience. Our objective experiences can be satisfactorily expressed in words. Vishnu is that Truth which is the Subjective Essence in all of us; He is that 'Knowledge', in the light of which, all other knowledges are rendered possible. As such no "sources of knowledge" (Pramaanas such as Direct perception. Inference etc.) can be employed successfully in exploring the realm of the Self. Subjective experiences of 'Be', the Maha Vishnu, is possible; but It can never become an 'idea' to express, nor can It become an 'emotion' to feel, nor can It ever become an 'object' to be described.
(178) Sreemaan - Sree means Glory (Aisvarya). Vishnu is permanently wedded to Mother Glory; He, who is constantly courted by all glories, is Sreemaan, Lord Vishnu.
(179) Ameyaatmaa - He whose Essence (Aatmaa) is inestimable and immeasurable (Ameya). As Aatman (Kshetrajna) He, the One, expresses Himself everywhere in every equipment (Kshetra) as the ‘knower' in each 'field'. Since these equipments are infinite in number, as the individuality (jeeva) in each one of the created beings. His own Glory expresses in endless manifestations.
(180) Mahaadridhrik - One who supports the great Mountain. In the Puranas, we find two instances, wherein the Lord has been described as the up lifter of or as having lifted and supported the mountains. While churning the milky ocean with the Mandara mountain we are told that the "churning-stick" sunk into the bottom and the Lord had to manifest in the form of the Great Tortoise (Koorma) and support it, while the Gods and Demons continued the churning, until they gathered the nectar (Amritam).
Again, the Supreme, as Lord Krishna, in order to protect the cows had to lift the Govardhana Mountain. Because of these two stories in the Puranas, Lord, the Protector of the mind in Saadhanaa, is called as Mahaadridhrik.
Vishnu is the Divine, that supports the mind-intellect of the Saadhaka while he is churning, through study (sravana) and reflection (manana), his own Milk-like pure heart-of devotion in order to gain the experience of Immortality (Amritam).
(181) Maheshvaasah — One who wears or wields the Great Bow called Saarnga.
(182) Maheebhartaa - The husband of Mother Earth. The Sanskrit term for husband is Bhartaa and the term denotes “Supporter". In the Puranic language we have the description of how the Lord, as the Great Boar uplifted the earth from the "waters of Deluge." Viewed from the platform of philosophy, just as gold is the supporter of all things made of gold, the Infinite Consciousness is the Essence from which everything has risen. Hence He is the Lord, the Supporter, the Husband (Bhartaa) of Mother Earth and everything that exists in her.
(183) Sreenivaasah - The permanent abode of Sree. Mother Sree connotes "all Glory and power, faculties and strength, to be good and to perform creative acts of righteousness". She is found to remain never permanently in any bosom. Even saints and sages, in recorded history, have come to compromise the perfections in them. The only place, where imperfections never enter to molest the serene essence, is the seat of Eternal Perfection, which is the bosom of Narayana. Hence Maha Vishnu is indicated as Sreenivaasa— the Permanent Abode of Lakshmi".
(184) SataamGatih — For the truly virtuous and for all spiritual seekers (Sot-People) He who is the final Goal. In the language of the Geeta He is the "Paraa gatih" The term gati is used to denote not only the goal, but the very movement, as well as the direction and the way. Narayana is the very Direction, Path, Progress and the Goal for his devotees.
(185) Aniruddhah — One who cannot be obstructed or resisted by anyone. Irresistibly, the will of the Lord functions in the world of created things-and-beings. Just as in the world of matter, the laws of nature are irresistible, the Rhythm and Harmony of Truth ever march in their Eternal Logic of objectless Love and immaculate perfection. Time and tide wait for none. When the sun rises, the living creatures absorb energy and nothing can obstruct this process. In the presence of the Self, the worlds of matter must get thrilled into their own independent activities, and in all these welter of efforts and exertions, achievements and failures, joys and sorrows, the Self is not involved by the Irresistible Enchantment of His presence, the Gopis seek their own fulfillment in their own dances. In the Puranas, we find Bhagavan Vishnu taking up in His various Incarnations different manifested forms and in all of them He was victorious; ever irresistible (Aniruddhah) is His Might.
(186) Suraanandah — The One who doles out happiness (Aananda) even for the Denizens-of-the Heavens (Suras). In the Upanishad we have the declaration, that the Infinite Perfection, the Lord is of the very nature of Absolute Bliss In the Aanandavallee of Taittireeya Upanishad we find the arithmetic of Bliss. The Rishi concludes that all joys of the world and heavens—mental and supramental—are all but flickering of the Infinite Bliss, which is the Lord Mahavishnu.
(187) Govindah — The word Go in Sanskrit has four meanings: 'Earth', 'Cows', 'Speech' and 'Vedas'. As the earth is the supporter of everything that is existing. He, who is the supporter of everything within the individual, is called Govinda; He, who is the Protector of the Cows and played the part of Gopaala in Gokula, is the very controller of the animal instincts and passions in the bosom of man; "One, without whom, no speech can ever emerge out of any throat—He being the very Life in all Creatures" says Kenopanishad; and the Highest Speech is the declaration of Truth in the Vedas. The Lord Himself is the very Theme and the Author of the Vedas. This great Self is Mahavishnu.
(188) Govidaam Patih - One, who is the Lord of all 'seers' and "Men of Wisdom". We have already indicated that Go means Vedas. —those, who have realized the Theme indicated in the Vedic declaration as the Essential Reality in their Own subjective bosom. They are called the Seers or Sages. To such Men-of-Wisdom the Self alone is the Lord and the Master.
(189) Mareechih - The term Mareechih means 'Effulgence'. Consciousness illumines objects and therefore in terms of worldly knowledge the Upanishads declare that the Supreme is the Light-Infinite. In the Geeta we read Bhagavan Vaasudeva declaring: "I am the Light in all effulgent".
(190) Damanah — One who restrains and controls every Raakshasic impulse within the bosom. In the forms of the ten incarnations. He had controlled the irresistible tyrannies of the vicious against the good. In the form of pain and agitation, sorrow and death, it is He, who is the Controller, Damanah, of all negative tendencies in everyone's Heart.
(191) Hamsah —One of the great declarations of the Vedas is: "I am Brahman" (Aham Brahmaasmi). Here the term I, the first person singular used, denotes the Supreme Self "functioning through the conditionings." This individual concept is called Jeeva. Thus I, the Jeeva (Aham), once detached from the conditionings, is essentially nothing other than He, the Lord (Sah). This experience that Aham is Sah is the very God-consciousness and therefore, Vishnu, the Supreme State of Realization is declared as Hamsah.
(192) Suparnah — Para means wings; Suparna means that which has beautiful wings—bird. "A pair of white winged birds extremely friendly sit on one and the same tree; one eats the fruits, the other eats not and gazes on".* Thus traditionally in the Upanishads, the Suparnas suggest the Jeevaatmaa and the Paramaatmaa sitting on the same tree (body): one (Jeeva) eats the fruits (of actions) and the other (the Self) merely gazes on (Saakshee). Vishnu is this All-experiencing Principle of consciousness.
(193) Bhujagottamah - The sacred serpent named in the puranas as Ananta. "Among the serpents I am Ananta," says Krishna.
(194) Hiranyanaabhah - He, who supports at His navel, the creator, Hiranyagarbha. The meaning for this term as given by some is "the One who has the navel region beautiful in its golden hue" must fail, in the context of the thoughts in the stanza, to appeal to all seekers.
(195) Sutapaah - One who has glorious Tapas. Consistent creative thinking is called tapas. For this, mental concentration is unavoidable. Mind cannot have consistent concentration unless it can have a perfect control over the sense-organs. Even when the mind is withdrawn from the sense-organs, it must have a consistent intellectual ideal to concentrate upon. In the Upanishad, we read: "He thought and through thought. He created all this.
(196) Padmanaabhah - One who supports at His navel the very seat of all creative-power. We have described this term earlier. According to Sankara, here the term may mean one who has a navel region which in its rounded beauty, is as charming as the lotus flower.
(197) Prajaapatih — The Lord of the creatures. Since all creatures have emerged from Him, the living creatures are His children (Prajaa) and He is their Pati. The term Pati has a direct meaning: 'father’. Thus Vishnu, as the only source from which all creatures have emerged out, is called as Prajaapatih.
(198) Amrityuh - One who knows no growth, Birth, decay, disease and death, are the five great modifications through which every finite object must necessarily pass Everything born must perish. The one who has no birth ha.' no death. The waves die but not the ocean. That which is Changeless in the changing whirls of matter is the Infinite Vishnu. In the Bhagavad Geeta, the Lord is emphatic: "He who sees the Changeless amidst the changing names and forms He alone sees the meaning and purpose of life.”
(199) Sarvadrik - The seer and knower of every thing. The Consciousness that illumines all motives and intentions—and the manifested activities that spring from then —in each individual, at all times, is necessarily the Witness of all, the Seer of everything, Maha Vishnu.
(200) Simhah — One who destroys. The Law behind all destruction and change in the Maayaa is the Mighty Lord. On transcending the Vehicles of the body, mind and intellect, at a time when all experiences of perceptions, emotions and thoughts are annihilated from us, the Experience left over is the Supreme. And in the Non-dual Supreme, there cannot be any object other than itself. Therefore, that "State" is called as the Total Destroyer. The State of Waking is the "destroyer" of the dream-world; the State of Sleep is the "destroyer" of the waking and the dream; the State of God Consciousness is the total "Annihilator" of all the known three planes of Consciousness. He is Simhah — a word that has been formed by the mutual transposition of the letters in Himsaa.


Even taking its obvious superficial meaning Vishnu is a Lion in our bosom, in as much as. He is the king of the forest of Samsaar: at the roar of Narayana all the animal-passions flee from the jungles of the mind. In the Geeta while describing His own Glory, the Lord says, "Among the animals, I am the King of animals – Lion”

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